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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The normal adult breast primarily consists of _____ and ___ tissue, as well as some rudimentary subareolar ducts.

fat and connective tissue
Symptoms leading to male breast examination include?

-breast enlargement


-palpable lump

-nipple discharge

The most frequent benign disorder in the male breast is?

Gynecomasia is?

represents non-neoplastic male breast enlargement and is the most common breast disorder
Causative factors for gynecomastia?

-hormonal imbalance

-systemic disorders

-drug-medication induced

-estrogen producing neoplasm


What form of gynecomastia is most common?

pubertal gynecomastia, affects up to 60% of young males
Clinical features of gynecomastia?

-bilateral or unilateral breast enlargement

-subareolar thickening

-palpable, firm, subareolar tender lump

Sono features of gynecomastia?

-hypoechoic, subareolar nodular pattern

-hypoechoic to hyperechoic triangular shaped region extending from nipple into breast core

-prominent hypoechoic subareolar ducts by hyperechoic periductal fibrous tissue

-increase in subcutaneous fat

Pseudogynecomastia results from?

increase deposition of subcutaneous fat and is bilateral
Pseudogyecomastia is most common in ?

obese males

Male breast cancer usually presents in ?

-older aged men
Risks factors for male breast cancer?

-advanced age

-exposure to ionizing radiation

-cryptorchidism (undescended testie)

-testicular injury

-Kline Felter syndrome

-Cowden's syndrome

-mumps prchitis

-family history of breast cancer

-chronic diseases (cirrhosis, AIDS, malnutrition)

Clinical features of male breast cancer?

-palpable, hard lump, usually painless

-subareolar location most common, just eccentric to nipple

-nipple and skin retraction, possible ulceration

-possible nipple discharge, often bloody or seroganguinous

Male breast cancer occurs most often in what region?


Sono features of male breast cancer?

-round or oval shape

-may be taller-than-wide

-speculated or angular mass, thick echogenic halo, shadowing

-may present as circumscribed, hypoechoic mass

-occasionally complex appearing if central necrosis or intracystic cancer with sound enhancement

Male breast metastases include?

-prostate (common)