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38 Cards in this Set

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SUPERIOR VIEW OF L2

1. transverse process


2. pedicle


3. vertebral foramen


4. body


5. mamillary process


6. superior articular process


7. laminae


8. spinous process

SCOTTY DOG FRACTURE

PARS INTERARTICULARIS

OVERVIEW OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN

1. cervical region


2. thoracic region


3. lumbar region


5. sacral region

1. CERVICAL REGION

LORDOTIC CURVATURE:


- convex relative to anterior aspect of body




C1 - C7

2. THORACIC REGION

KYPHOTIC CURVATURE:


- concave relative to anterior aspect of body




T1 - T12

3. LUMBAR REGION

LORDOTIC CURVATURE:

- convex relative to the anterior aspect of body




L1 - L5


4. SACRAL REGION

KYPHOTIC CURVATURE:


- concave relative to anterior aspect of body




S1 - S5

DYNAMICS OF PELVIC TIPPING

1. rectus abdominus - post. tip


2. erector spinae - ant. tip


3. hamstrings - post. tip


4. rectus femoris - ant. tip

1. RECTUS ABDOMINUS

- if too strong, creates posterior tip to pelvis




- decrease lumbar lordotic curvature

2. ERECTOR SPINAE

- if too strong, creates anterior tip to pelvis




- increase lumbar lordotic curvature



- collection of muscles



- origin = posterior aspect of pelvis


- insert = superior vertebra/ribs





3. HAMSTRINGS

- if too strong, creates posterior tip to pelvis




- decrease lumbar lordotic curvature




- all three hamstrings origin = ischium

4. RECTUS FEMORIS

- if too strong, creates anterior tip to pelvis




- increase lumbar lordotic curvature




- one of "quad" muscles


- origin = anterior inferior iliac spine


- inserts on patellar tendon

POSTERIOR VIEW OF LUMBAR REGION

1. lumbar vertebra 1


2. transverse processes


3. spinous processes

1. LUMBAR VERTEBRA 1

- lumbarized


- all sacral vertebra should be fused

2. TRANSVERSE PROCESSES

- insertion points for ligs/muscles

3. SPINOUS PROCESSES

- insertion points for ligs/muscles

LIGAMENTS IN POSTERIOR LUMBAR REGION

1. intertransverse ligament


2. interspinalis ligaments


3. ligamentum flava

1. INTERTRANSVERSE LIGAMENT

- passes from b.t. the transverse processes of adjacent vertebra




- prevent excessive opposite side lateral flexion

2. INTERSPINALIS LIGAMENTS

- passes between the spinous processes of adjacent vertebra




- prevent excessive forward flexion

3. LIGAMENTUM FLAVA

- passes between anterior & inferior aspect of laminae of more proximal vertebra to the posterior & superior aspect of the laminae of the more distal vertebra




- prevent excessive forward flexion

LIGAMENTS IN ANTERIOR LUMBAR REGION

1. anterior longitudinal ligament

1. ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT

- limits hyperextension of vertebral column


* AKA prevents excessive extension of trunk




- inserts into anterior aspect of successive vertebral bodies




- thick/broad - rarely injured

MUSCLES OF POSTERIOR LUMBAR REGION

1. mulifidus muscle


2. erector spinae


3. thoracolumbar fascia


4. latissimus dorsi

1. MULIFIDUS MUSCLE

- stabilizes sucessive vertebra




- runs oblique b.t. transverse processes of inferior vertebra to spinous process of superior vertebra


- runs length of vertebral col.

2. ERECTOR SPINAE

- extends spine if functioning bilaterally




- group of muscles

3. THORACOLUMBAR FASCIA

- binds together all deep muscles of spinal column


*AKA multifidus & erector spinae




- separates deep muscles from superficial muscles of lumbar region

4. LATISSIMUS DORSI

- adducts & internally rotates humerus




- very large muscle


- originates on spinous processes of lumbar & thoracic vertebra

THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISK

1. intervertebral disk


2. annulus fibrosis

1. INTERVERTEBRAL DISK

- b.t. each cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebra


- none b.t. sacral or coccyx




- anterior to spinal cord


- limited to articulate w. adjacent vertebral bodies




- 20-25% of height of vert. col.

2. ANNULUS FIBROSIS

- outer region of each disck




- very fibrous


- primarily collagen bundles




- collagen bundles = obliquely oriented


- posterior/lateral aspect of disk the bundles = poorly organized --> this leads to weak-spot where nucleus pulposus can break through




- when nucleus pulposus migrates away from center of intervertebral disk = disk herniation

INTERVERTEBRAL DISK HERNIATIONS

* disk only articulates w. body of adjacent vertebrae


* spinal cord housed in vertebral foramen...




1. pedicles


2. laminae


3. spinous process


4. b.t. pedicle & laminae..


5. neural arch


--


6. protrusion/extrusin/sequestration


7. nerve root damage

1. PEDICLES

- found bilaterally


- immediately posterior to vertebral body

2. LAMINAE

- found bilaterally


- immediately posterior to pedicles

3. SPINOUS PROCESS

- just posterior to laminae

4. B.T. PEDICLES & LAMINAE..

- superior & inferior articular process b.t. each pedicle & laminae

5. NEURAL ARCH

- bony aspects taken together = neural arch

6. PROTRUSION, EXTRUSION, & SEQUESTRATION

PROTRUSION:


- if nucleus pulposus bulges against annulus fibrosis




EXTRUSION:


- if nucleus pulposus bulges through annulus fibrosis




SEQUESTRATION:


- if nucleus pulposus is no longer bound by annulus fibrosis

7. NERVE ROOT DAMAGE

- any herniations in posterior & lateral directions can impinge spinal nerve root




- causes sensory (dermatone) and motor (myotome) function damage