Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ship of Fools
Sebastian Brant (1457-1521) written about the corruption of the church. It was one vessel of salvation, but it would surely sink due to it's foolish passengers. mocks relics and friars.
Diet of Worms
1521 called and presided over by Charles V. Here, Luther was allowed to recant his views and publications. He didn't.
Edict of Worms
1521 Luther is declared an outlaw, and he flees to protection of Duke Frederick of Saxony
John Hus
(1372-1415) wrote Treatise on the Church. declared the Pope too powerful. He should not have the authority to forgive sins, and hold a power like that of Christ's.
Thomas Müntzer
(1488-1525) a radical German reformer who was a leader in the Peasant War of 1524-1525. Believed he had a direct connection to God as a prophet. Hated Luther for his unwillingness to support his rebellion
Council of Constance
(1415) called and prepared to start Reform, but the Pope squashed all attempts at Church reform, only causing the people to grow more uncertain of his "rightful" authority.
Leon Battista Alberti
(1404-1472) wrote his Treatise on Painting and Sculpture. Established perspective and 3D techniques.
Leonardo da Vinci
(1452-1519) in his Notebook, he describes the concepts of intellect, nothingness and a vacuum, as well as others. From his work he deduced that art was not simply a craft,but a way of discovering the world through math, history, and emotion.
Artists as "liberal artists"
Alberti said that they must study geometry, botany, anatomy, history, proportions and the story of classics in order to create something of emotion and with a story. Art shows an artists understanding of knowledge.
Charles VIII of France
invaded Italy in 1494 after being persuaded that it was his right, due to ancient family lineage, and because he saw a vision from God.
Did not recognize Charles the V as the overlord. His kingdom was a collection of autonomous provinces. He ruled with different powers and different titles in each province.
Luther as academic
Just as he studied classics, Luther studied the Bible (Conversion 2.2) He poured through scriptures to find their meaning. When he came to discuss his findings, he released his 95 theses as an academic disputation. later, so all could study the Word, he translated it into the vernacular (1530: On Translating: An Open Letter)
Luther spiritual search
(Conversion 2.2) Luther lived the life of a monk the best he could but continously felt inadequate and unrighteousness before God. turning to the Scriptures, Luther found verse after verse saying that he only needed faith--through God's Word, which would then be turned to righteousness
Luther theological principles
95 theses (1517) firmly relying on Scripture, Luther found no evidence for indulgences or purgatory. Pope is not above law, and cannot grant forgiveness of sins. Christ is the only mediator between man and God. saved by faith, Christ, and Scriptures alone. everyone should read Bible.
Huldreich Zwingli
67 Articles (1523) Zwingli did not agree with purgatory, and found indulgences to be a sin. He advocated for marriage for churchmen, all food can be eaten without fear of defilement. Unlike Luther: Lord's Supper is only a symbol, not really blood and body of Christ (1524: Letter to Matthew Alber Concerning the Lord's Supper)
Dialogue Against the Arrogant Theses of Martin Luther
(1518) priests believed that the more individuals reading the Bible would cause more heresy. People would be interpreting the Scriptures wrong and cause a decline in morals
What to Look For and Expect in the Gospels
(1521) the ability to read the Scriptures for themselves gave Christians a freedom from the church over their faith. Luther wrote to guide them on what to look for.
Luther's: to the Councilmen of All Cities in Germany that they Establish and Maintain Christian Schools
(1524) the idea of having so many people wanting to learn the Scriptures, that schools had to be started in order to teach the people how to read and understand them. first from monastaries, and then led to publicly funded schools (1530 Luther's A Sermon on Keeping Children in School)
Luther's the Freedom of the Christian
(1520) Luther empowering the lower class people's with the idea that we are all one in Christ--free from the bondage of the world (lords and serfdoms)
Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants
(1525) the Swabian Peasants read the Scriptures and found no evidence for being lorded over. demanded freedom from the feudal system and a share in agriculture. brothers and sisters in Christ should have no separation.
Peasants War
rebellions started in 1522, one leader being reformer Müntzer. The full out war began in 1524-1525
Karlstadt's Exposition on Numbers 30 and on Vows
(1522) Marriage could not be withheld from those who took monastic vows--the vows could be broken if they had been made foolishly. People were leaving the monastaries to get married, leaving the monastaries with less money and support. the welfare system had to be moved into the care of the cities. reworking the whole welfare system.
Nuremberg Begging Order of 1478
kept the greedy people from taking advantage of the role of being a beggar. made sure that only the true poor were licensed to beg.