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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the receptor and where is it located?
the cellular material directly involve in the action of the drug and is located on the surfaces of cell membranes and inside cells
When drug molecules bind with a receptor, they can cause a reaction that ____ or ____ cellular functions.
stimulates or inhibits
What is a drug that activates receptors and produces a response that may either accelerate or slow normal cellular processes, depending on the type of receptor involved referred to as?
an agonist
What is a drug that binds to receptors but does not activate them, instead blocking the receptors' action by preventing other drugs or substances from interacting with them referred to as?
an antagonist
What is the MEC?
minimum effective concentration, enough drug to produce an effect
What is the onset of action?
When the MEC is reached
What is the MTC?
minimum toxic concentration, blood concentration limit beyond which there are undesired or toxic effects
What is the therapeutic window?
the range between the MEC and the MTC
What is the duration of action?
the time between the onset of action and when the MEC is reached again by the declining blood concentration level
What are the ADME processes?
absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
What is another term for the ADME processes?
What are metabolism and excretion combined called?
What is absorption?
the transfer of drug into the blood from an dministered drug product
What can effect distribution?
if the drug cannot penetrate the tissue's membranes, if there is not enough blood flow to the tissue, and drug binding to proteins in the blood or in tissues
When acids dissociate are they ionized or unionized?
When bases are dissociated are they ionized or unionized?
Why do unionized drugs penetrate biological membranes more easily than ionized drugs?
they are more lipid soluble, charges on biological membranes bind or repel ionized drugs, ionized drugs associate w/ water molecules, creating larger particles w/ reduced penetrating capability
What are biological membranes composed of?
lipids and proteins
What is passive diffusion?
when drugs in the body's fluids move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached
How do most orally administered drugs move in the body?
from the intestine to the blood and from the blood to the site of action
What are hydrophobic drugs?
drugs that are lipid soluble, therefore penetrate cell membranes easier
How do hydrophilic drugs penetrate membranes?
they move through water-filled passages called aqueous pores
How do drugs that cannot pass through a membrane by passive diffusion enter a cell?
active transport
What is the gastric emptying time?
the time the drug will stay in the stomach before it is emptied into the small intestine
What can affect gastric emptying time?
the amount and type of food in the stomach, the presence of other drugs, the person's body position, and their emotional condition
What can bile salts from the intestinal tract do to the absorption of drugs?
they improve absorption of certain hydrophobic drugs
What can enzymes do to the absorption of drugs?
they destroy certain drugs and decrease their absorption
Where do enzymes in the intestine come from?
some are added to the intestinal tract's contents from pancreatic secretions and some are present in the intestinal wall
What does protein binding cause?
the drug binds w/ proteins and the molecule is too big to pass through the membrane, so it is stored in the fat and muscle and gradually released as the blood concentration of the drug falls
What are the 2 uses for terbutaline?
bronchodilation and to delay labor in pregnant women
What is an example of a highly selective tissue membrane?
the blood-brain barrier and finger and toe nails
What happens to a drug when it binds with a protein to form a complex?
the drug cannot pass through membranes and is inactive
What is a metabolite?
a drug after the body has transformed it
What is the primary site of drug metabolism in the body?
the liver
What transforms a drug into a metabolite?
What does enzyme induction do to the metabolism of a drug?
it results in greater metabolism of a drug
What is it called when drugs that have made their way to the gall bladder are emptied into the intestine after consumption of food and are reabsorbed back into the body?
enterohepatic cycling
What is first-pass metabolism?
the drug must go thru the liver before reaching systemic circulation, where enzymes can degrade or destroy a drug
If the kidney's process of filtration becomes impaired, how would this affect drug dosaging?
excretion would be reduced and drugs will accumulate in the blood; the dosage of drugs must be decreased or the dosing interval lengthened
Which penetrates biological membranes more easily, ionized or unionized drugs?
unionized drugs