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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The diaphragm separates what two cavities? What two cavities is the second one further divided into?
Peritoneal cavity (stomach, intestines, liver) and thoracic cavity. Pericardial cavity (heart) and pleural cavities (lungs).
What internal structure supports the vertebrate body? What part(s) of it protects the brain? the spinal cord?
The skeleton. The skull. The vertebrae.
What are the four levels of organization in a vertebrate?
Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
What are the three germ layers/embryonic tissues? What are the four primary tissues?
Endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
What is an organ? What is an organ system?
A group of tissues that work together to carry out a function. A group of organs that work together to perform a major body activity.
What are the two general classes of epithelial tissue and the three subdivisions?
Simple (one cell layer thick) and stratified (several layers). Squamous (flat cells), cuboidal (cubish cells), columnar (long cells).
Glands are made from epithelial tissue. What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands?
Exocrine glands secrete products through ducts. Endocrine ones secrete products called hormones without ducts.
What are the two major classes of connective tissue and their subtypes?
Connective tissue proper (loose and dense) and special connective tissues (cartilage, bone, and blood).
What is the matrix? (No, not from the movie...)
The extracellular material around the widely spaced connective tissue cells. (AKA ground substance)
What are fibroblasts? Fibrocytes?
The cells that secrete the extracellular matrix in connective tissue proper. The mature fibroblasts that maintain the matrix.
What are adipose cells?
Fat cells that hold fat for future use by the body.
What is the difference between regular and irregular dense connective tissue?
Regular DCT has the collagen fibers aligned and forms tendons and ligaments. Irregular DCT does not and forms organ coverings.
What is cartilage? What are the cells that compose it and where do they live?
Connective tissue that is firm and flexible (can be skeletal or just joint lubricant). Chondrocytes. Lacunae.
What is bone? What cells build it? What cells dissolve it? What cells gave rise to these cells?
Bone is supportive tissue, often first modeled in cartilage. Osteocytes. Osteoclasts. Osteoblasts.
Describe bone structure.
It is made of concentric layers of compact bone, called lamellae, with Haversian canals which allow blood vessels access to the bone. There is spongy bone on the ends of bones that house marrow which produces blood. Canaliculi in the bone allow osteocytes to share materials.
How is the formation of flat bone different from the formation of long bones?
In flat bone, osteoblasts create the bone in a web of dense connective tissue. In long bones, they are first modeled in cartilage.
What is the extracellular material of blood? What cells make up blood?
Plasma. Erythrocytes (red blood cells), Leukocytes (white blood cells), and Thrombocytes (platelets).
What protein makes erythrocytes functional?
What are the different leukocyte types?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
What embryonic tissue is connective tissue made of?
What are the three muscle types? Which are striated?
Smooth(involuntary, mononucleated), skeletal(voluntary, multinucleated), and cardiac(heart, mononucleated). Skeletal and cardiac.
What is myocardium?
The single functioning unit of a group of cardiac muscle cells.
What cells make up nerve tissue?
Neurons and neuroglia(support neurons).
What are the three neuron parts?
The cell body, dendrites, and axon. They can also have myelin sheaths that form nodes of Ranvier.
What are the two divisions of the nervous system?
The central nervous system (CNS, brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (PNS, nerves and ganglia).
What are the types of skeletons?
Hydrostatic (fluid filled), Exoskeleton (surround body), Endoskeleton (internal, appendicular and axial sections).
What are the types of joints?
Immovable, slightly movable, and freely movable.
How are skeletal muscles connected to bones? Which end doesn't move on contraction? Which does?
By tendons. The origin. The insertion.
What are two muscles that cause the same action? Opposing actions?
Synergists. Antagonists.
What is isotonic contraction? What is isometric contraction?
Contraction that results in muscle shortening. Contraction that does not change muscle length.
What are the filaments of muscles?
Muscle fibers made of myofibrils made of myofilaments which are strings of sarcomeres.
What are the parts of the sarcomere?
The dark A bands, light I bands, thin Z line, and a short H band.
What is the mechanism of muscle contraction?
The sliding filament mechanism which is the result of the cross-bridge cycle.
There exist cross-bridges between the thick _______ filaments and thin _______ filaments.
Myosin, Actin.
What three substances control muscle contraction?
Tropomyosin(blocks cross bridges), troponin(binds tropomyosin and actin), and Ca++(blocks troponin).
Where is the Ca++ stored? What do impulses travel through to get there?
Sarcoplasmic reticulum. Transverse tubules.
What are the neurons that trigger skeletal muscles? What is their neurotransmitter?
Somatic motor neurons. Acetylcholine.
What is Ca++'s involvement in muscle contraction called?
Excitation-contraction coupling.
What are motor units? What is recruitment?
Motor units are motor neurons plus all of the muscle fibers that their axons trigger. Recruitment is the increase in motor unit size to roduce a stronger contraction.
What is a twitch? What is summation? What is tetanus?
A quick contraction and relaxation of a muscle. The accumulation of two twitches. A smooth, sustained contraction.
What are slow-twitch fibers? What are fast-twitch fibers?
Type I, red, long time for tetanus, dark meat, more myoglobin. Type II, white, short time for tetanus, white meat.
What is myoglobin?
A red pigment that helps muscle cells get oxygen that they need.
What is muscle fatigue? What is hypertrophy?
The use-dependent decrease in muscle functionality. Increase in cell size(present in muscle cells).
What are the two most common types of locomotion in animals?
Appendicular (oscillation) and axial (undulation, pulsation, peristalsis).
Who are you going to vote for MHA president?
Robert Fromm.