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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are genetic maps? What units are used on genetic maps?
Diagrams that show RELATIVE location of genes on a chromosome. Centimorgans (0.01% recombination).
What are physical maps? What units are used on physical maps?
Diagrams that show relative location of landmarks within specific DNA sequences. Base-pairs (1000 bp=1 kb).
What are used to create larger genome maps? What's a contig?
Sequence-Tagged Sites (STSs). A continuous segment of a genome.
What are the vectors used when a large piece of DNA is to be cloned?
Artificial Chromosomes. (Bacterial or Yeast)
What is shotgun sequencing? What is a consensus sequence?
Sequencing all of the cloned fragments and then using a computer to put them together. A consensus sequence is an additional copy that the computer uses to develop a more accurate sequence.
Is the number of genes what determines how complex an organism is?
No. (Rice has more genes than humans)
What is bioinformatics?
The use of computer programs to search for, compare, and assemble genes.
What is an open reading frame (ORF)? What is an expressed sequence tag (EST)?
A section of DNA that codes for protein. A sequence tagged site used to identify genes in a genomic sequence.
What are the four classes of protein encoding genes?
Single-copy genes (Single copy on a chromosome), Segmental Duplications (Blocks copied between chromosomes), Multigene Families (Clusters of related genes), Tandem Clusters (Identical copies all transcribed simultaneously).
What are the six classes of noncoding genes?
Noncoding DNA within genes (introns), structural, simple sequence repeats, segment duplications, pseudogenes (inactive, possibly due to mutation), transposable elements (jump between locations on chromosomes)
What are the different types of transposable elements?
Long and short interspersed elements (LINES and SINES).
What is linkage disequilibrium?
The tendency for genes not to be randomized. It is used as a tool in mapping genes.
What is synteny?
Conserved arrangements of DNA segments in related genomes.
What is functional genomics?
The study of the function of genes and their products.
What are DNA Microarrays?
An assortment of DNA fragments on a microscope slide. It allows the screening of a large number of genes extremely quickly.
What is protoeomics?
The cataloguing and analyzing of every protein in the human body.
How is all of the RNA present in a cell at a specific time studied?
Transcriptome is used.
How has genomics helped humankind?
Improved medical diagnostics, improved agriculture, and biological weapons.
What are single nucleotide polymorphisms?
Sites where individuals differ by only a single nucleotide.
Who made these flashcards?
Robert Fromm