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49 Cards in this Set
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Meaning of stratified

divide into groups with similar characteristics. choose a sample from group


Meaning of Cluster

dissimilar groups are already divided. choose entire group.
Ex) an airport. pick 5 flights and sample them. 

process of matched pair

Subjects >paired> treatment 1
>treatment 2 

Def & Process of block design

similar subjects formed then randomly assigned to treatment groups.
Subjects> block (randomized) > treatment 1 >treatment 2 

Mild Lower fence formula

Q1  1.5 (IQR)


Mild upper fence formula

Q3 + 1.5 (IQR)


Extreme lower fence formula

Q1  3 (IQR)


Extreme upper fence formula

Q3 + 3 (IQR)


Measure of center for symmetric distribution

Mean


Measure of spread for symmetric distribution

Standard Deviation


Measure of center for Skewed Distribution

Median


Measure of spread for skewed distribution

IQR


Mean > median

Skewed right


Mean < Median

Skewed left


Mean = median

Approximately symmetric


Interquartile Range

IQR = Q3  Q1


When to use Z = (XU)/ O

When its normal distribution


Correlation Coefficient (r)
Positive weak 
0 < r < .3


Correlation Coefficient (r
Negative weak 
.3 < r < 0


Correlation Coefficient (r)
Positive, moderate 
.3 < r < .7


Correlation Coefficient (r)
Negative, moderate 
.7 < r < .3


Correlation Coefficient (r)
Positive Strong 
.7 < r < 1


Correlation Coefficient (r)
Negative Strong 
1 < r < .7


Residual formula

e = real (y)  Yhat (predicted)


Meaning of negative residual

Prediction is too high


Meaning of positive residual

Prediction is too low


When to use P(A U B)

to find the probability of both A AND B or both occuring


If A and B are disjoint (CANNOT occur at the same time) then P(A U B) formula is

P (A) + P (B)


When to use P (A n B)

to find the probability of both A AND B occurring (the overlap)


If A and B are independent then P (A n B) =

P(A) * P(B)


For independent events P(A U B) =

P(A) + P(B)  P(A) * P(B)


Properties of Binomial Distribution (4)

Fixed number of trials/observations, trials are independent, only two outcomes: success or failure, probability of success is the same for each trial


Properties of Approximate normal distribution (for NUMBER) (3)

Above properties for a binomial must be satisfied, NP and NQ > 10, SRS


Properties of approximate distribution for sample PROPORTIONS (4)

Sampled values are independent,NP and NQ > 10, SRS, sample < 10% of population


If it is number and NP and NQ is NOT greater than 10, then the sampling distribution is:

X ~ B( n,p)


If it is a number and NP and NQ is greater than 10, then the sampling distribution is:

X~AN (p, sqrt((pq)/n)


If it is a proportion and NP and NQ are satisfied then the sampling distribution is:

Phat ~ AN(U, O)


Normal distribution notation

X~N(U,O)


Empirical Rule

689599.7


if it is normal approximation to binomial. how to find mean and standard deviation

Mean = np
Standard deviation= sqrt(np(1p)/n) 

Margin of error formula

Z* (sqrt((pq)n))


If given C.I, find Point of estimate

(upper + lower) / 2


If given C.I, find ME

(upper  lower) /2


alpha =

1  confidence level


Confidence interval =

1  alpha


Type I error

mistakenly reject the null. Ho is TRUE but we mistakenly said it was FALSE.


Type II error

failed to reject the null. Ho is FALSE but we mistakenly said it is TRUE.


P (A n B) means

probability of A AND B


P ( A U B) means

probability of A OR B
