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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Meaning of stratified
divide into groups with similar characteristics. choose a sample from group
Meaning of Cluster
dissimilar groups are already divided. choose entire group.
Ex) an airport. pick 5 flights and sample them.
process of matched pair
Subjects -->paired--> treatment 1
-->treatment 2
Def & Process of block design
similar subjects formed then randomly assigned to treatment groups.

Subjects--> block (randomized) --> treatment 1
-->treatment 2
Mild Lower fence formula
Q1 - 1.5 (IQR)
Mild upper fence formula
Q3 + 1.5 (IQR)
Extreme lower fence formula
Q1 - 3 (IQR)
Extreme upper fence formula
Q3 + 3 (IQR)
Measure of center for symmetric distribution
Measure of spread for symmetric distribution
Standard Deviation
Measure of center for Skewed Distribution
Measure of spread for skewed distribution
Mean > median
Skewed right
Mean < Median
Skewed left
Mean = median
Approximately symmetric
Interquartile Range
IQR = Q3 - Q1
When to use Z = (X-U)/ O
When its normal distribution
Correlation Coefficient (r)
Positive weak
0 < r < .3
Correlation Coefficient (r
Negative weak
-.3 < r < 0
Correlation Coefficient (r)
Positive, moderate
.3 < r < .7
Correlation Coefficient (r)
Negative, moderate
-.7 < r < -.3
Correlation Coefficient (r)
Positive Strong
.7 < r < 1
Correlation Coefficient (r)
Negative Strong
-1 < r < -.7
Residual formula
e = real (y) - Yhat (predicted)
Meaning of negative residual
Prediction is too high
Meaning of positive residual
Prediction is too low
When to use P(A U B)
to find the probability of both A AND B or both occuring
If A and B are disjoint (CANNOT occur at the same time) then P(A U B) formula is
P (A) + P (B)
When to use P (A n B)
to find the probability of both A AND B occurring (the overlap)
If A and B are independent then P (A n B) =
P(A) * P(B)
For independent events P(A U B) =
P(A) + P(B) - P(A) * P(B)
Properties of Binomial Distribution (4)
Fixed number of trials/observations, trials are independent, only two outcomes: success or failure, probability of success is the same for each trial
Properties of Approximate normal distribution (for NUMBER) (3)
Above properties for a binomial must be satisfied, NP and NQ > 10, SRS
Properties of approximate distribution for sample PROPORTIONS (4)
Sampled values are independent,NP and NQ > 10, SRS, sample < 10% of population
If it is number and NP and NQ is NOT greater than 10, then the sampling distribution is:
X ~ B( n,p)
If it is a number and NP and NQ is greater than 10, then the sampling distribution is:
X~AN (p, sqrt((pq)/n)
If it is a proportion and NP and NQ are satisfied then the sampling distribution is:
Phat ~ AN(U, O)
Normal distribution notation
Empirical Rule
if it is normal approximation to binomial. how to find mean and standard deviation
Mean = np
Standard deviation= sqrt(np(1-p)/n)
Margin of error formula
Z* (sqrt((pq)n))
If given C.I, find Point of estimate
(upper + lower) / 2
If given C.I, find ME
(upper - lower) /2
alpha =
1 - confidence level
Confidence interval =
1 - alpha
Type I error
mistakenly reject the null. Ho is TRUE but we mistakenly said it was FALSE.
Type II error
failed to reject the null. Ho is FALSE but we mistakenly said it is TRUE.
P (A n B) means
probability of A AND B
P ( A U B) means
probability of A OR B