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### 17 Cards in this Set

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 Data Collectionsofobservations,such as measurements, genders, or survey responses Statistics Thescience of planning studies and experiments, obtaining data, and thenorganizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawingconclusions based on the data Population Thecomplete collection of all measurements or data that arebeing considered Census Collectionof data from everymember of a population Sample Subcollectionof members selected from a population Prepare - Context vWhatdo the data mean? vWhatis the goal of the study? Prepare - Source of the Data * Isthe source objective? * Isthe source biased? * Bevigilant and skeptical of studies from sources that may be biased. Prepare - Sampling Method * Doesthe method chosen greatly influence the validity of the conclusion? * Voluntaryresponse (or self-selected) samples often have bias (those with specialinterest are more likely to participate). * Othermethods are more likely to produce good results. Conclude – Statistical Significance * Statisticalsignificance isachieved in a study when we get a result that is very unlikely to occur bychance. PotentialPitfalls – Misleading Conclusions * Concluding that one variable causes the other variable when in factthe variables are only correlated or associated together. * Twovariables that may seemed linked, are smoking and pulse rate. * Wecannot conclude the one causes the other. Correlationdoes not imply causality PotentialPitfalls - Small Samples Conclusions should not be based onsamples that are far too small. Example: Basing a school suspension rate on a sample of only threestudents PotentialPitfalls - Loaded Questions If survey questions are not wordedcarefully, the results of a study can be misleading. PotentialPitfalls - Order of Questions Questions are unintentionally loaded bysuch factors as the order of the items being considered. PotentialPitfalls - Nonresponse Occurs when someone either refuses torespond to a survey question or is unavailable. PotentialPitfalls - Missing Data Can dramatically affect results.Subjects may drop out for reasonsunrelated to the study.Example- People with low incomes are less likely to report their incomes PotentialPitfalls - Precise Numbers Because as a figure is precise, manypeople incorrectly assume that it is also accurate. PotentialPitfalls - Percentages Misleadingor unclear percentages are sometimes used