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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The study of the mechanical aspects of living organisms.
Problems that biomechanics can be used to solve
How can sporting equipment or sports techniques be altered to enhance performance?
How can sporting equipment or sports techniques be altered to prevent or reduce injuries?
Does stretching before running help or hinder performance?
What lifting kinematics can minimize the stress of lifting?
Qualitative analysis versus Quantitative analysis
A qualitative analysis pertains to quality without the use of numbers while a quantitative analysis involves numbers.
Kinematics versus kinetics
Kinetics is the study of forces while kinematics is the study of appearance of motion.
Types of equipment used to perform a kinematic analysis
Timing devices (stopwatch), velocity measuring systems (radar gun), optical imaging systems (video cameras), accelerometers, inertial measurement units, motion capture systems
Types of equipment used to perform a kinetic analysis
Force platforms, pressure sensors, electromyography
Has magnitude and direction
Has magnitude
If given the right angle components of a vector, how would you find its magnitude?
By finding the hypotenuse of the right triangle formed by the axes.
Units of displacement, is it a vector or scalar
Meters, vector
Units of distance, is it a vector or scalar
Meters, scalar
Units of velocity, is it a vector or scalar
Meters per second, vector
Units of speed, is it a vector or scalar
Meters per second, scalar
Units of force, is it a vector or scalar
Newtons, vector
Units of acceleration, is it a vector or scalar
Meters per second squared, vector
Units of mass, is it a vector or scalar
Grams, scalar
Units of time, is it a vector or scalar
Seconds, scalar
Three cardinal planes and examples of movement in each
Sagittal - forward and backward movements, such as marching, bowling, or cycling
Frontal - lateral movements such as cartwheels, side kicks, side steps, or jumping jacks
Transverse - rotational movements such as a dancer's piroutte
Occurs when a position made from the joint angle is decreasing, such as an elbow being flexed when the hand is brought to the shoulder.
Occurs when a joint angle is increased along the same plane, such as the straightening of a leg
Occurs when the extension is beyond 180 degrees, such as when the neck is hyperextended when one looks up to the ceiling
Occurs when the angle between the dorsum or foot and the leg are decreased so the toes are brought closer to the shin.
Occurs when movement increases the 90 degree angle between the front of the foot and the shin, such as standing on your tip toes
Draws the limb away from the medial sagittal plane of the body
Brings a part of the anatomy closer to the middle sagittal plane of the body
A quantity of matter that composes a body
Resistance to change in a state of motion
How are inertia and mass related
The amount of inertia a body possesses is directly proportional to its mass. The more massive an object is, the more it tends to maintain its current state of motion.
A push or pull characterized by magnitude, direction, and point of application
Units of force
What is a net force?
The single resultant force derived from the vector composition of two or more forces.
Why do we find the net force acting on a body?
A force rarely acts in isolation, it is important to recognize the overall effect from many forces
Center of gravity
The point at which a body's weight is equally balanced no matter how the body is positioned.
The gravitational force exerted on a body
Stress versus pressure
Pressure and stress are the force per unit of area over which a force acts. Pressure is the distribution of force external to a solid body while stress represents the resulting force distribution inside a solid body.
A pressing or squeezing force directed axially through a body
A pulling or stretching force directed axially through a body
Distance versus displacement
Distance is measured along the path of motion while displacement is a change in the location from the directed distance to the initial location.
Speed versus velocity
Speed is the distance covered over the time taken to cover it, while velocity is the rate of change in position or location
The rate of change in linear velocity
What happens if the acceleration vector is in the opposite direction of the velocity vector?
The object is slowing down
What happens if the acceleration vector is in the same direction of the velocity vector?
The object is speeding up
Acceleration due to gravity
Projectile motion
A body in free fall that is subject to only the forces of gravity and air resistance
How do the equations for the horizontal and vertical components of projectile motion differ?
The vertical component is influenced by gravity while the horizontal component is not.
Angular distance
The sum of all angular changes undergone by a rotating body
Angular displacement
The change in angular position from initial to final position
Angular speed
A scalar measure of rotational rate
Angular velocity
The change in angular position
Angular acceleration
The rate of change in angular velocity
Units of angular displacement
Degrees, radians, or rotations/revolutions
Units of angular velocity
Degrees/seconds or radians/seconds
Units of angular acceleration
Degrees/seconds^2 or radians/seconds^2
Newtons laws
1st law - Law of inertia - a body will maintain a state or rest or constant velocity unless acted on by an external force
2nd law - Law of acceleration - a force applied to a body causes acceleration of that body
3rd law - Law of reaction - every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Reaction force
Acts in the opposite direction to an action forcr
Ground reaction force
Any force exerted on the ground on a body in contact with it
Quantity of motion moving along a body
Equation for momentum
M = mv
Principle of conservation of momentum
States that in the absence of external forces, the total momentum of a given system remains constant.
Equation of principle of conservation of momentum
M1 = M2 or (MV)1 = (MV)2
The product of a force and the time interval over which a force acts
How are impulse and momentum related?
Because impulse causes momentum
Mechanical work
Product of a force applied against a resistance and the displacement of the resistance in the friction of the force.
Equation of mechanical work and units
W=Fd, Joules
The ability to do work
How are work and energy related?
Objects that have greater energy can do more work
Equations for potential and kinetic energy
Potential = PE = (wt)(ht)
Kinetic = KE = 1/2mv^2
The peak of a ball's kinetc energy when thrown upwards
The instant impact of a ball's kinetic energy after being thrown upward
Static equilibrium
A motionless state in which there is no net force or net torque acting
Base of support
The area bound by the outermost regions of contact between a body and its support surface
How to increase a body's stability
Increasing body mass and friction between the body and surfaces of contact
Moment of inertia
Inertial property for rotating bodies
How does distributing the mass farther from the axis of rotation affect moment of inertia?
Distributing the mass farther from the axis of rotation makes it more difficult to swing an object
Angular momentum
The quantity of angular motion possessed by a body
Principle of conservation of angular momentum
Total angular momentum of a given system remains constant in the absence of external torques