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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the atypical thoracic vertebra?
What part of the vertebrae transmits the spinal cord?
vertebral foramen
What forms the ventral canal?
vertebral foramen that stacked together
What is the job of the intervertebral foramen?
Transmits spinal nerves and vessels out of the vertebral canal
Where does the ventral artery pass through?
Cervical vertebrae 6
What are the primary sagittal curves?
Thoracic and sacrum -- function
of the body
what are the secondary sagittal curves?
Cervical and lumbar -- funtion of the
Which are typical cervical vertebra?
which vertebrae is known as the vertebra prominens?
C7 due long spine that can be seen through skin
What is unique about the "atlas" vertebra?
1.No body
2. Anterior arch = fovea dentis - meets w/ dens
3. No spinous process
4. post. arch groove for vert. artery and 1st cranial nerve.
Where does the "atlas" articulate?
Occipital condyles
Whats unique about the "axis"?
1. Dens
2. Smallest transverse process
What makes the lumbar vertebrae different?
1. absence of costal facets
2. thin transverse process
3.pedicles are short & thick
4.facets are sagittal
Name the differences for T9-12
9 &10 =single facet for corresponding rib
11 =no costal facet
12 = spinous process is short

inferior articular processes resemble lumbar vertebrae
True or false Meniges travel down sacral canal?
Why do disk herniate laterally?
because of the posterior longitudinal ligament. It is loosely attached to vertebra but tightly attached to disks
define nucleus pulposus?
part of disk that behaves like a liquid. Its a shock absorber and equalizes stress
What does the following:
1. binds vertebral bodies together
2. permits motion btwn vertebrae
3. is the lamellae of the collagen
4. Retains nucleus pulposus
5.shock absorber
Anulus fibrosus
What does the breast lie on top of?
overlies pec. major, serratus anterior, extends ribs 2-6
where does the most breast cancer occur?
superlateral quadrant, it has the most galndular tissue
where is the retromammary space located?
In btwn the 2 fascia levels -- superficial superficial fascia and superficial deep fascia. The deep superficial fascia lies against the deep fascia that overlies the pectoralis major, forming the retromammary space in which a hand can be placed
Why are suspensory ligaments in the breast important?
they connect the deep superficial fascia to the super superficial fascia. If innervated by tumor this will cause tugging on the skin
When do secretory alveoli develop?
not until pregnancy
what is lactiferous sinus?
dilated portion of the duct that is deep to the areola--> storage during lactation for milk right at nipple.
When does the mammary line develop?
Day 37 of development
Describe the nipple
Faces slightly laterally
level of 4th intercostal rib
Composed of smooth muscle fibers arranged circularly and this is what causes nipple to be erect
Where do the following receive blood (or drain) from?
1. superficial layers of breast
2.venous drainage of breast
3.deep from ribs to sternum
1.intercostal arteries
2.axillary vein (mainly) and internal thoracic vein
3.internal thoracic artery
List the arterial supply to breast
Intercostal 2,3,4
Internal thoracic
List the venous drainage of the breast
Superficial plexus
Internal thoracic
Intercostal-vertebral plexus
Where is the suspensory ligament of the axilla? What does it do? AKA?
From clavicle around pec minor to skin of axilla

keeps armpit from drooping
aka clavipectoral fascia
What bone is part of the attachment for the pec minor? Pec major?
Pec major = humerus

pec minor = scapula
Why is the axilla so important to the hand?
it’s the gateway to the upper extremity. All the nerves and blood vessels that go to spinal cord to the hand pass through here
whats unique about the long thoracic nerve?
It lies on top of the muscle.

Usually nerves are protected and thus are underneath the muscle. This has clinical implications --> surgery risks, damage = winged scapula
What is the breast made up of?
Fat, fibrous tissue, ductual tissue, glandular tissue
Where are suspensory ligaments most numerous?
Most numerous in superior of the breast
what is acute mastitis?
It is when one of the glandular ducts gets infected. It is typically confined to 1 or 2 ducts since they are separate, can cause severe swelling
What are the branches of the axillary artery?
Superior thoracic
lateral thoracic
anterior circumflex humeral
posterior circumflex humeral

*Screw The Lawyer, Save A Patient"
What is Pagets disease?
Cancer cells travel along the duct and grows, resulting in ulceration & irritation of the nipple (eczema)

may be a sign of caner (or there could just be inflammation of the nipple)
What's the most fracture of the shoulder region?

Where could we find such a fracture?

Many babies when born have fractured clavicles
What does it look like if you have no clavicle?
Rounded shoulders, scapula not held back
What does the subclavious muscle do?
It acts as a cushion for arteries
What makes the shoulder unstable? What helps this?
The shoulder is highly movable = instability

The rotator cuff musucles help hold it in place
What keeps the pectoral girdle in place?
It has a strut to hold it back -- the clavicle and rhomboid muscles keep back too
What makes up the pectoral girdle?
Clavicle and scapula and humerus
What attaches to the coracoid process?
pec minor, cocracobrachialis, short head of biceps brachia
How do we get the clavicle to stay in place?
Coracoclavicular ligaments thatt go from the process to the clavicle

Acromioclavicular joint
What is the function of the rotator cuff?
stabilize the humerous head to glenoid cavity

Initiate aBduction until the deltoid takes over and finishes aBduction
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
1. Subscapularis
2. Infraspinatous
3. Teres Minor
4. Supraspinatus
What would a torn rotator cuff manifest as?
If a patient has a competely torn rotator cuff they cannot lift the arm unless they swing it until deltoid can take over abduction
What is unique about the coracoacromial ligament?
Runs from one bone to the same bone
Why is tendonitis so painful?
There isnt much space btwn the acromion and supraspinatus. Any swelling is painful
Name the extrinsic muscles of the pectoral girdle
Trapezius, rhomboid, levator, latissimus

(come from axial skeleton & attach to scapula)
Name the intrinsic muscles of the pectoral girdle
Deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis, all bicep
What makes up the deltopectoral triangle?
clavicle, lateral edge of pec major, medial edge of deltoid
Where do the axillary nerve and posterior circimflex humeral artery come through?
Quadrangular space
Name the parts that make up the Axilla
apex, base, anterior, posterior, medial, lateral
Apex=clav. 1st rib, superior edge of scapula
Base =skin / fascia
Anterior= pec major/minor
Posterior=subscapularis, teres major, latissims, scapula
medial= 1-4 ribs, serratus anterior
lateral=intertubercular groove of humerus
What is the anterior axillary fold?
Pectoralis major
What does the axilla contain?
1.axillary artery
2.axillary vein
3.axillary lymph nodes
4.Brachial plexus
Trace the path of the axillary artery from where it starts to where it ends
Begins at 1st ribs -->continues to teres major where at its inferior border it will become the brachial artery
What are the 3 parts of the axillary arteries? Name where(if) they branch
1. Superior thoracic
2.Thoracoacromial trunk & lateral thoracic artery
Pectroal, deltoid, acromial, clavicular branches
3.AHC & PHC & Subscapular artery
What does the subscapular artery branch into? where?
Runs on lateral border of scapula
Breaks into 1. Circumflex scapular artery
2. Thoracodorsal artery
where does the axillary vein become the subclavian vein?
At the border of the first fibW
What happens if you block blood flow in axillary artery?
It will flow to dorsal scapular artery. There will be no blood flow thru subscapular artery going inferiorly so it will go superiorly

OR It can flow to suprascapular ligament and its branches anastomose with circumflex scapular artery
What are the 5 groups of the axillary lymph nodes?
Pectorial, subscapular, humeral, central, apical
What are the ventral rami of the brachial plexus?
Describe the superior brachial plexus injury
Angles btwn neck and shoulder has been exaggerated
C5 & C6 are stretched

aka Waiters tip position
Describe Inferior brachial plexus injury
4th & 5th digits of hand do not get much flexion
damage to C8-T1
Due to babys upper limb being pulled
"claw hand" similiar to ulnar nerve injury
Which bones attach to the coracoid process?
a. Pectoralis minor
b. Short head of biceps brachii
c. Coracobrachialis
What has the fastest rate of growth?
From egg to term
Which grows 1st head or extremeties?
Describe the growth of the following from fetus to adult
1. Constant
More than 80% of spontaneous abortions are due to?
Chromosomal abnormalities
What is the least common cause of abnomalies in babys that make it to term? Most common?
Least -chromosomal abnormalities
Most-unknown etiology
What is a teretogen?
anything that can interfere with normal development. It can compete or replace nutrients needed or interefere directly with process by replacing enzymes
When is the most likely time for anomlies?
What are the 3 phases of fertilization?
(Capacitation) acrosomal reaction, penetration, fusion
What cell types does the trophoblast form and describe what they do?
1. cytotrophoblast =maintains the lining of the blastocyst

2.syncytiotrophoblast- evades lining of the uterus, very corrosive, eats everything, huge nucleated cell, huge amount of enzymes so it stores what it eats
What layer is splanchnic?
The mesoderm around the yolk sac only.

It is important because it becomes the cardiac, sex cells, and smooth muscle
What tells the cells where the head should form?

What are the cells called?
The hypoblast is the organizer of the head region

Percordal cells
What do the different cell layers form?
Ectoderm- CNS, epidermis, sense organs
Endoderm -glands, digestions, pancreas, liver
Mesoderm- everything esle, tendons, vascular, bone, ligaments, cartilage
What make integral proteins different from peripheral proteins?
Integral proteins have hydrophobic component and can only be removed by use of detergent because they're tight
Peripheral proteins are loosely attached and cane be removed by changing the salt concentration
What is the most common intermediate filament?
What is zonula occludens?
it is a tight junction. It forms a seal and occludes allowing nothing through. It is closest to apical cells
What is zonula adherins?
It makes a circle around the cell. It has an attachment function
What is a gap junction?
Many pores make up one of these. Its like a tunnel connected to two cells. Allows the epithelium to respond to something. It has a communication function
What are the differences between the following: merocrine, holocrine, apocrine?
Merocrine - extrude proteins thru duct

Holocrine - explodes upon secretion --> its sebacious

Apocrine - lose/explode top of cell when they excrete