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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Victimization survey
Survey asking if people have had crimes done to them
Example of a positive function of crime
o Increasing social solidarity
o Reinforcing social norms
An eye for an eye theory of punishment
Broken window theory
Theory that you should stop minor crimes to stop major ones
Invisible knapsack
term used to describe white privilege
Costly rules of masculinity according to Kimmel
Avoid feminine, focus on external success, and be aggressive
Time when welfare state was created in Canada
After the great depression
Example of high status, but low economic class
Religious leaders, parents, teachers
Rosenhans experiment illustrates this concept
On being san and insane places.
Our Master status overshadows all other status
Zimbardo prison study
Study of situational deviance
Example of means tested programs
Welfare, or guaranteed income supplement
Universal programs
Programs that benefit everyone
Why Marx thought class was exploitative
Profit is created by one class and controlled by the other
Social system in which men hold power
Realistic conflict theory
Prejudice comes from competition over resources
Absolute poverty
Deprivation of resources that is life threating
Reasons why poverty hard cycle to escape
• Everything related – Vicious cycle
• More expensive to be poor
• Debts from family
• Less social contacts
Sex is defined as
Gender is defined as
Social expectations
Biological determinism
o Structure societies on male and female categories
o 2 different body types
Why inequality with women in work force
• Child care and parental care
• General discrimination
• Social closer—restricting women from certain jobs (historical term)
Feminization of an occupation
• Occupation dominated by women
o Loses prestige
o Wages go down
Social class
• Hierarchical social relationship based on socioeconomic groups that reoccur over time
• Individuals economic and social position in society
• Institutions reinforce these classes
• Rewards based on your achievement in society
Conditions of class formation (according to Roy)
• Economic surplus—perpetuate domination
• Caging effect – cant leave area or they will experience drop in quality of living
3 groups of aboriginals that Canadian constitutions recognizes
• Inuit
• Metis
• Indian
Royal proclamation of 1763
• Recognized Indian nations as tribes
• Extended sovernty
• Instructed colonial governments to respect Indian land
Result of discrimination of the first nations
Income, health, discrimination, justice
Assimilation of first nations through...
• Residential schools
• Restricting cultural practices
• Restricting language
First Nations faced...
• Legal systems – Corporate interest favored
• Political discrimination
• Commodifaction of nature
• Systematic racism – restricted from jobs ect.
Causes of misery (Charon)
• Social inequality
• Destructive social conflict
• Alienation
• Socialization
Why is crime normal (Durkhime)?
• Existence of it is a sign we are evolving as a society
• Exists in all societies
• Increase in social solidarity
• Defining groups moral boundaries
Conceptions of deviance
• Time
• society
• sub culture
2 cultures in the code of the street
• decent
• street
what is the Code of the street
• showing you are self sustaining though violence
• gaining respect
Ehrenreich: Nickel and Dimed
Low-wage work is not a solution to poverty or homelessness, but instead may cause poverty and homelessness
Durkheim: Rules for the distinction of the normal from the pathological
• Crime is a social construction:
o Essentialist perspective: the act is inherently criminal
o constructionist perspective: no act is inherently criminal; it is only deemed a crime if it is labeled and treated as such by society, ie if it breaks a society’s rules
Anderson: The Code of the Streets
• Causes of violence and crime in poor ghettos: financial stress due to low wages or unemployment, racism, drug addiction, drug trafficking, alienation, hopelessness
Decent (code of the streets)
mainstream, middle-class values
Street (code of the streets)
opposed to mainstream society
Code of the streets
informal rules governing interpersonal behavior & self-presentation
Respect: right of deference earned through violence
Essentialist perspective (roy ch 4)
race is defined as a natural and biological phenomenon
constructionist perspective (Roy ch 4)
race as a socially invented phenomenon, there is no natural or genetic foundation.
5 components of the definition of race (roy ch 4)
1. common physical characteristics (especially skin color)
2. distinct groups: bounded categories (skin color is actually a gradient)
3. inherited through ancestry: associated with specific geographic origins, but complicated by multiplicities of ancestry: no ‘pure’ races
4. common behavioral characteristics associated with physical characteristics: association of skin color with cultural or personal traits
5. hierarchical rank relative to other racial groups: never ‘separate but equal’: concept of race invented to explain and justify inequality, defined by dominant group
stereotype(roy ch 4)
traits commonly associated with a group assumed to apply to each individual member of that group
indentured servants(roy ch 4)
not free: binding obligation to work; could be traded / sold
chattel slavery(roy ch 4)
defines people as property of owners; no rights as individuals
5 factors of the creation of race(roy ch 4)
1. rise of capitalism: chattel slavery = commodification of people
2. egalitarian rights: concept of human rights
3. concept of ‘savage’
4. legitimated through science: race categories assumed ‘real’
5. enshrined and enforced by law
biological reductionism:(roy ch 4)
behavioral differences explained through biological differences: environmental / cultural factors of behavior essentialized as biological
identity(roy ch 4)
people tend to self-identify into racial groups = perpetuates racial categories
institutional racism(roy ch 4)
institutional practices that perpetuate racial inequality.
affirmative action(roy ch 4)
preferential treatment for groups that have previously been discriminated against in order to equalized access to and representation in educational / political / economic fields
color-blind (roy ch 4)
argument against affirmative action: no race criteria, only merit; based on an ahistorical premise: falsely assumes level playing field, ignores history of discrimination and the social consequences thereof