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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Various individuals, groups, and organizations that influence the socialization process.

Agents of Socialization

Process through which people acquire the values and orientations found in statuses they will likely enter in the future.

Anticipatory Socialization

the practice or principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it


Control of mating to ensure that "defective" genes of troublesome individuals will not be passed on to future generations.


process in the development of self during which a child acquires the ability to take the role of a group or community (the generalized other) and conform his or her behavior to broad societal expectations.

Game Stage

Psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness


perspective of the larger society and its constituents values and attitudes

generalized other

essential aspect of who we are, consisting of our sense of self, gender, race, ethnicity, and religion


culture in which personal accomplishments are a more important component of one's self-concept than group membership

individualist culture

sense of who we are that is defined by incorporating the reflected appraisals of others

looking-glass self

Process in the development of self during which a child develops the ability to take a role, but only from the perspective of one person at a time

Play stage

Behavior in which the person initiating an action is the same as the person toward whom the action is directed

Reflexive behavior

Process of learning new values, norms, and expectations when an adult leaves an old role and enters a new one


Ability to see oneself from the perspective of others and to use that perspective in formulating one's own behavior

Role taking

Unique set of traits, behaviors, and attitudes that distinguishes one person form the next; the active source and passive object of behavior


Biological maleness or femaleness


Process through which one learns how to act according to the rules and expectations of a particular culture


Place where individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period and where together they lead an enclosed, formally administered life

Total Institution

Grouping of students into different curricular programs, or tracks, based on an assessment of their academic abilities


Statement designed to explain unanticipated, embarrassing, or unacceptable behavior after the behavior has occurred


Action taken to restore an identity that has been damaged

Aligning Action

Area of social interaction away from the view of an audience, where people can rehearse and rehash their behavior

Back stage

Gently persuading someone who has lost fact to accept a less desirable but still reasonable alternative identity

cooling out

Assertion designed to forestall any complaints or negative reactions to a behavior or statement that is about to occur


Study of social interaction as theater, in which people project images in front of others.


Spontaneous feeling experienced when the identity someone is presenting is suddenly and unexpectedly discredited in front of others


Area of social interaction where people perform and work to maintain appropriate impressions

front stage

the process by which we define others based on observable cues such as age, ascribed status characteristics such as race and gender, individual attributes such as physical appearance, and verbal nonverbal expressions

impression formation

Act of presenting a favorable public image of oneself so that others will form positive judgements

impression management

set of individuals who cooperate in staging a performance that leads an audience to form an impression of one or all team members

performance team

deeply discrediting characteristic that is viewed as an obstacle to competent or morally trustworthy behavior


Marriage within one's social group


Marriage outside ones social group


Family unit consisting of the parent-child nuclear family and other relatives, such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins

extended family

Two or more persons, including the householder, who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption and who live together as one household.


Living arrangement composed of one or more people who occupy a housing unit


the practice of being married to only one person at a time.


living arrangement in which a married couple sets up residence separate from either spouse's family

neolocal residence

family unit consisting of at least one parent and one child

nuclear family

marriage of one person to more than one spouse at the same time


Approach to defining deviance that rests on the assumption that all human behavior can be considered either inherently good or inherently bad


Official definition of an act of deviance as a crime


theory of deviance positing that people will be prevented from engaging in a deviant act if they judge the costs of such an act to outweigh its benefits

deterrence theory

Behavior, ideas, or attributes of an individual or group that some people in society find offensive


Theory stating that deviance is the consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to an offender: a deviant is an individual to whom the identity "deviant" has been successfully applied

Labeling Theory

Definition of behavior as a medical problem, mandating the medical profession to provide some kind of treatment for it


Approach to defining deviance that rests on the assumption that deviance is socially created by collective human judgments and ideas


Tracing descent through the mother


of, relating to, or based on relationship to the father or descent through the male line.


victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially responsible for the harm that befell them

blame the victim

compliance with standards, rules, or laws


A stigma that you get because people around you have it

courtesy stigma

the family of one's parents and relatives

family of orientation

the family created by marriage

family of procreation

attempts to manipulate the consciousness of citizens so that the ruling ideology

Ideological social control

the average period that a person may expect to live

life expectancy

the length of time for which a person or animal lives or a thing functions

life span

is social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society


as engaging in the initial act of deviance

primary deviance

respect or credit due to a person


as the stage in which one internalizes a deviant identity by integrating it into their self-concept

Secondary deviance

rights and obligations of the affected

sick role

is the regulation of individual and group behavior in an attempt to gain conformity and compliance to the rules of a given society, state, or social group

social control

system of behavioral and relationship patterns that are densely interwoven and enduring, and function across an entire society

social institutions

meaning the stigma disqualifies the stigmatized individual from full social acceptance

spoiled identity

holds that each society has a dominant set of values and goals along with acceptable means of achieving them. Not everyone is able to realize these goals

strain theory

the view of social behavior that emphasizes linguistic or gestural communication and its subjective understanding, especially the role of language in the formation of the child as a social being.

symbolic interactionism

include fraud, bribery, Ponzi schemes, insider trading, embezzlement, cybercrime, copyright infringement, money laundering, identity theft, and forgery.

white collar crime