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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

evaluation of one's beliefs


where does self-identity come from?

1. introspection

2. social interaction

3. self-perception

4. social comparison

downward social comparison

- a way to maintain self-esteem

- too much leads to an inflated, empty ego

self-serving attribution

when we try to explain our behavior

- external vs. internal

Ex: for failure- I did not get the job because the boss was a jerk

for success- I got the good because I am a hard worker and a friendly person

unrealistic optimism

holding positive illusions

may increase our vulnerability (overestimation)

Ex: I will get an A on this test regardless if I study because I am smart

defensive pessimism

anticipating problems to be better prepared for them

Ex: My boss is meticulous and may not like my presentation so I must go back and make everything more detailed.

False consensus effect

overestimate the commonality of your beliefs

Ex: Everyone must think that going to college is important because everyone around me thinks so.


when unsure of potential success, we subconsciously create a handicap to influence performance

Ex: I have a big job interview that I need to prepare for but I am going to binge watch Netflix. If you get the job, you are a great, successful person, if not you can blame it on the netflix.


Basking in Reflected Glory- taking credit for someone's success who is close to us

Ex: When your friend gets a promotion and you brag to everyone you know about how great a worker your friend is.


Cutting Off Reflected Failure

Ex: When your friend gets arrested for drug trafficking you tell everyone that you weren't that good of friends to begin with.

High Self Esteem effects

high life satisfaction, happiness, confidence, persistent in the face of failure

Low Self-Esteem effects

psychological maladaptiveness, low relationship satisfaction, correlates with drug abuse and low income

How to boost self-esteem?

Unconditioned Positive reward- encouraged even in the face of failure

Describe the study about Narcissism and Aggression

People were with varying levels of narcissism and SE were asked to write essays. They then had those essays critiqued. Those with:

high SE + high narcissism= more aggression

low SE + high narcissism= less aggression

high SE + low narcissism = low SE + low narcissism

Bottom Up Processing

senses to brain

What am I seeing?

Top Down Processing

brain to senses

past experiences affect present experiences

Why do we try to explain behavior?

it helps us make sense of the world around us

if we are able to predict other's behavior then we will now how to react which gives us the "illusion of control"

Correspondence Inference/ Fundamental Attribution

We infer stable dispositions from people's actions

We infer that there is a connection between behavior and personality

Yields Noncommon Effects

part of Fundamental Attribution/Correspondence Inference

means there is only one cause which we presume to be internal

Socially Undesirable

part of Fundamental Attribution/Correspondence Inference

we presume internal factors

Unconstrained Behavior

part of Fundamental Attribution/Correspondence Inference

means that person freely chose that behavior so we attribute it to internal factors

Discounting Principle

part of Fundamental Attribution/Correspondence Inference

- We decrease belief in internal cause if other causes exist

Ex: If a persons trips on an upturned rug and bumps into someone, we are more likely to attribute the bump to the upturned rug instead of that person being rude.

Augmenting Principle

part of Fundamental Attribution/Correspondence Inference

- we increase our belief in internal factors if the behavior occurs in the presence of inhibitory factors

Ex: If someone runs a red light we are more likely to conclude that person is unaware and a bad driver.

Covariation Theory

1. Consensus- do other people act in the same way (external) or not (internal)?

2. Consistency- does this behavior happen all the time (internal) or only once (external)?

3. Distinctiveness- does the behavior occur in one situation (external) or all situations (internal)?

Fundamental Attribution Error/ Correspondence Bias

by default, we assume a person's actions are directly caused by their beliefs/personality but our own are caused by external factors

Actor/Observer Effect

When playing the actor we believe everything is caused by external factors b/c we are aware of all things that are happening.

When playing the observer we believe everything the actor is doing is caused by internal factors b/c our attention is solely on them.

Defensive Attribution

blaming the victim for their misfortune

makes the event less common, give illusion of control (It won't happen to me)

Ex:He got a DUI because he is irresponsible and was not careful enough. I am responsible and careful so I can drive home from the bar.

Belief in a Just World

believe that good things happen to good people vice versa

Ex: He failed because he is a bad student. I am a good student therefore I will get an A.

4 Attribution Errors

1. Actor/ Observer Effect

2. Belief in a Just World

3. Fundamental Attribution Error/ Correspondence Bias

4. Defensive Attribution

What is a Heuristic?

shortcut for quick/efficient but not always accurate judgments

rules of thumb

Representative Heuristic

shortcut to categorize a person into a group because of common characteristics


Ex: See a blonde hair blue eyed girl walking down the street, assume she is American.

Base Rate Fallacy

when we forget to take the "base rate" into account when judging someone

Ex: Blonde hair and blue eyes is more common in Northern Europe so the chances are that girl is not American.

Availability Heuristic

make decisions based on info that is more readily available in your mind (ie more vivid, more personal, just heard)

Ex: Hear about plane crashes in the news. Decide to drive to next vacation spot, not realizing that in reality driving is far more dangerous.

Counterfactual Thinking

thinking of alternative scenarios to events that have already occurred

Ex: Get a B+ on a test. See that you had changed a question from the correct answer to the wrong answer. Think that if only you hadn't changed that question you could have gotten an A.

Forming Impressions (3 Aspects)

happens very quickly, schemas play a role

Primacy effect- neg info first= neg impression vice versa

Belief Perserverance- once you develop a belief it is difficult to change it regardless of info

Confirmation Bias- look only for info that confirms your first impression

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Expectation-- unconscious behavior-- affects behavior in others-- confirms expectation

Ex: You meet a boy and you expect him to like you (expectation). You flirt more outwardly with him (behavior). He in turn flirts back (affected behavior). You think he likes you (confirmation)

Negativity Bias

a negative impression is harder to change than a positive one

3 main aspects of Social Perception

1. Efficiency-- automatic processing (fundamental attribution)

2. Selectivity-- we focus on info that confirm our beliefs (confirmation bias)

3. Consistency-- once a judgment is made, we stand by it (belief perseverance and primacy effect)

3 components of Attitudes

Affective- feelings about something

Behavior- actions

Cognitive- beliefs

4 ways in which attitudes form

1. Socialization- observing others

2. Learning- classical and operant conditioning

3. Genetics- some variations in attitudes correlate with variations in genetic makeup

4. Mere-Exposure Effect - we like things the more we are around them

What 4 components does accuracy of predicting how attitudes affect behavior depend on?

1. Situation- strength of norms

2. Who is being asked- high (conforms) vs low self monitor (doesn't conform)

3. Type of behavior- gen vs specific

4. Type of attitude- gen vs specific

Attitudes affect behavior when...

1. Attitudes are specific to the behavior

2. social influences are minimal

3. attitudes are potent

How do attitudes influence behavior?

(Automatic behaviors)

automatic responses are directly influenced by attitudes.

Ex: If you hate mice and see a mouse run across the floor you scream and yell before realizing that you are scared.

How do attitudes influence behavior?

(Planned behaviors)

Theory of Planned Behavior:

Attitude-- behavioral intentions-- behavior

What are the three components of "Behavioral Intentions"?

-part of the Theory of Planned Behavior

1. Attitudes (emotion, consequences)

2. Subjective Norms (other's approval)

3. Subjective Perceived Control (appraised ability to perform the behavior)

Self-Perception Theory

I am what I do.

Looking at our own behavior to infer our attitudes

Cognitive Dissonance

when attitudes and behaviors or two attitudes are not consistent we experience measurable negative arousal

Solve: by changing attitude

Insufficient Justification + Experiment

we justify our behavior internally when there is not a sufficient external justification

Ex: $1 and $20 lie experiment. Those given $1 to lie ended up believing that the task was more enjoyable than it was because by doing so they lessened their discomfort. Those given $20 maintained that the task was boring because they did not experience any cognitive dissonance

3 ways to reduce Cognitive Dissonance

1. Change either the attitude or the behavior

2. Acquire new information (consonant cognition)

3. Minimize the importance of the behavior or attitude (direct vs indirect means)

Indirect means to reduce Cognitive Dissonance

get rid of the negative feeling

Self- Affirmation-- restore positive self evaluations by focusing on positive attributes

the inconsistency is still present, but the negative feeling is removed

Ex: I am a good student even though I cheat on my partner.

Cognitive Dissonance produced by decisions

when two attitudes don't align

Post-Decisional Self-Justification Effects-- exaggerate positives of chosen option and exaggerate negatives of other option

Self-Presentation Theory/ Impression Management Theory

what matters is not that motive is consistent, only that it appears to be consistent

there is no negative feeling and no actual change. just the outward illusion of a change