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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What is nomothetic?

Laws that apply to all people. How we are all the same.

What is idiographic?

Laws designed to explain our uniqueness.

What does socioemotional selectivity theory attempts to be?

Nomothetic and ideographic.

What is telescoping?

A past even that can be very distant appearing/feeling recent.

What are the 3 principles of socioemotional selectivity theory?

1.The perception of time plays a fundamental role in the selection and pursuit of social goals.

2.Social motives fall into 2 general categories:

a. Acquisition of knowledge

b. Regulation of emotion

3.When time is perceived as open ended we tend to focus on knowledge related goals.

When time is perceived as limited we tend to focus on emotional related goals.

When we are young like in our 20s what goals do we tend to focus on?

Knowledge related goals.

When we are old like in our 60s & 70s what goals do we tend to focus on?

Emotional related goals.

Do old people have larger or smaller social networks than young people?


When endings are salient people


What is time monitoring?

Time at present. Time goes fast when you are having fun, but when you are not time goes slow..

What the 2 categories of social motives?

1.Acquisition of knowledge

2.Regulation of emotions

When time is perceived as open ended what goals do we focus on?

Knowledge related goals.

When time is perceived as limited what goals do we focus on?

Emotion-related goals.

What are the implications of time being perceived as open-ended or limited for couples?

1.Young couples focus on solving problems with relationship.

2.Old couples will focus on good things in the relationship and enjoying each other.

In infancy what goals do we care about?

Emotion related goals.

Describe sorting task.

You receive a pile of blank index cards.

Cards labelled: 1.immediate family member

2. author of book 3. person you have known more than 5 years 4. person you have known less than 3 months

What are the 3 dimension in the sorting task?

Good/bad: would this person make me feel good or bad?

Information-seeking: degree to which i'm likely to learn something i don't know from this person

Future contact: do I expect to have further contact with this person in the future.

What happens when sorting task is done with older people? (60s and 70s)

All 3 dimensions are used but more weight is placed on good/bad dimension.

What happens with the sorting task when it is done with young AIDS patients?

AIDS people act like old people because they place more emphasis on good/bad dimension.

Can't ignore decreasing time

Emotional related goals more salient

What happens in incidental memory task?

As people get older there is more recall for emotional events.

What are age differences in regulation of emotion?

1.Older ppl report better control of emotions.

2.Older ppl report fewer negative emotions.

3.Older ppl report conflicts in fewer domains and display more mild emotions.

4.Older ppl more likely to display affection when discussing a conflict.

5.Positive emotions are maintained in both frequency and intensity in old age.

What are some other differences in emotions of young vs old people?

1.Negative emotions decline in frequency but not intensity in old age.

2.Negative emotions last longer for younger people.

What are age differences in composition of social networks?

Older ppl have smaller social networks but deeper connections than younger ppl.

Contact with acquaintances decline as people get older but interaction rates with intimates stays the same or increases.

What are the social preferences as a function of time?

Member of immediate family<--Emotional support

Recent acquaintance<--Novelty


Younger ppl have preference of novelty over emotional support.

When people are asked what would improve their life what is the most common response?


How has the reason for going to college changed?

It changed from developing a meaningful philosophy of life to being very well off financially.

What is the correlation between happiness and money?

Once subsistence level is raised, there appears to be no correlation between income and subjective well-being.

For wealthy countries the correlation between income and subjective well-being is 0.

What are the results of the study that looked at lottery winners and people with spinal injuries?

Happiness for lottery winners increases than plateaus and goes back to normal, the opposite thing happens for people with spinal cord injuries.

This is called adaptation.

Are Americans any happier today than they were in 1940?


What happens when men are presented with images of attractive women?

Expressed less love towards wives and were more critical.

What happens when women are presented with images of dominant high status men?

Expressed less commitment and less love for husband.

Are people in their 20s more or less likely to experience depression than people in their 30s?

More likely

What are adaptations that cause subjective distress?

Psychological pain, anxiety, fear, depression.

What does unhappiness stem from?


What does Schadenfreude mean?

Taking pleasure from someone else's pain.

What are 4 key ways of improving happiness?

1.Try to increase closeness of extended kin.

2.Develop deep friendships.

3.Select a mate who is similar to you.

4.Try to manage competitive mechanisms.

What is the tit for tat method?

1. Show good faith and be trustworthy

2.Depending on opponents move, you match it.

3.Insist on no more than equity.

How much variance does genes account for in variance in positive emotionality? Negative emotionality?

40 percent for positive emotions and 55 percent for negative emotions.

How much variance does shared family environment account for in variance of positive emotionality? Negative emotionality?

22 percent for positive emotions and 2 percent for negative emotions.

Who are the happiest people based on marital status?

Married followed by never married followed by divorced and then separated.

Is there a gender difference in the marriage happiness link?


Does happiness lead to good marriage or good marriage lead to happiness?


What are some facts of actively religious people?

Report higher levels of happiness.

Tend to be healthier physically and live longer.

Recover more quickly after trauma.

For retired people what are the 2 best predictors of happiness?

Physical health and religiousness.

What does the diathesis-stress model suggest?

That depression results from a combination of stress in life and a vulnerability factor.

What is mourning and what is melancholia?

Mourning is reaction to loss of love object, intense sadness, crying and so on but not guilt or shame.

Melancholia is response to a remorse psychological failure, loss of self-integrity because failure to leave one's standards, self-recrimination, deprecation.

What is hopelessness?

When you come to believe that there is nothing that you can do to improve.

What is worthlessness?

When you think you are weak, depreaved, inadequate, flawed.

What is helplessness?

The perception that one is powerless to change an undesirable situation. Ppl can feel helpless without feeling hopeless.

What is dysphoria?

Mild depression. Depressive reaction to negative event, break up, losing a job.

What factors make people more prone to depression?

.Heightened need to be accepted

2.An exaggerated need to be strong, capable, and independent.

3.Inordinate need to be good loving, moral, virtuous.

What are the 2 types of people prone to depression?

Social dependent and achievement dependent people.

What is labile self-esteem and what is it a risk factor for?

Fluctuations in self-esteem and it is a risk factor for depression.

According to Beck what are the secondary symptoms of depression?

Weight gain/loss, sleeping problems, and affective disturbances.

According to Beck what are the primary symptoms of depression?

Negative Cognitive Triad:

.Negative view of self

2.Negative view of world

3.Negative view of future.

What does negative self-schemata explain for people with depression?

Explain why there is self-defeating attitudes despite positive factors in life.

What are the 4 prototypes of negative self-schemata?

.Selective abstraction

2.Arbitrary inference


4.Absolute dichotomous

What is selective abstraction?

Focusing on one or 2 tiny details and taking them out of context.

What is arbitrary inference?

Drawing conclusions in the absence of supporting evidence.

What are over generalizations?

Drawing conclusions too broadly.

What is an example of absolute (dichotomous) thinking?

If you do not love me you hate me.

Using categorical terms.

What is an important part of depression?

Negative thinking.

Do depressed people make the same kind of judgements of other people that non depressed people do?

Yes they view others fine. Only difference is that they view themselves negatively.

Do depressed people show relative or absolute negativity?

Relative negativity.

What are the implications of diurnal mood variation for depressed people?

Some people feel more depressed earlier in the day while others feel more depressed later in the day.