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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Research on communication skills of nonhuman primates reveals that


a. they, too, possess a universal grammar


b. they can't combine the calls for food and danger into a single utterance


c. female nonhuman primates are more sensitive to different shades of green than their male counterparts are


d. they can construct elaborate call systems, often indicating several messages simultaneously


e. only apes, not monkeys, use call systems

b. they can't combine the calls for food and danger into a single utterance

When Washoe and Lucy tried to teach sign language to other chimpanzees, this was an example of


a. displacement


b. call systems


c. productivity


d. cultural transmission


e. estrus

d. cultural transmission

Recent research on the origin of language suggests that


a. the capacity to remember and combine linguistic symbols is latent in all mammals


b. a mutation in humans (which occurred about 150,000 years ago) may have conferred selective advantages (linguistic and cultural abilities)


c. fine tongue and lip movements that are necessary for clear speech are passed on through enculturation


d. a sudden event made toolmaking possible for Homo


e. call systems evolved into complex languages 50,000 years ago

b. a mutation in humans (which occurred about 150,000 years ago) may have conferred selective advantages (linguistic and cultural abilities)

What is the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions?


a. ethnosemantics


b. kinesics


c. biosemantics


d. protolinguistics


e. diglossia

b. kinesics

The scientific study of a spoken language involves several interrelated areas of analysis. Which area refers to all of a language's morphemes and their meanings?


a. syntax


b. ethnosemantics


c. ethnoscience


d. phonology


e. lexicon

e. lexicon

What does the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis state?


a. the degree of cultural complexity is associated with the effectiveness of languages as systems of communications


b. the Hopi do not use three verb tenses; they have no concept of time


c. Different languages produce different ways of thinking


d. culture and language are transmitted independently


e. dialect variation is the result of toint-training practices

c. Different languages produce different ways of thinking

Studies on the differences between female and male Americans in regard to the color terms they use suggest that


a. in opposition to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, it might be more reasonable to say that changes in culture produce changes in language and thought rather than the reverse


b. changes in American economy , society, and culture have had little impact on the use of color terms


c. in support of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, different languages produce different ways of thinking


d. women and men are equally sensitive to marketing tactics of the cosmetic industry


e. women spend more money on status goods than men do

a. in opposition to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, it might be more reasonable to say that changes in culture produce changes in language and thought rather than the reverse

Which of the following statements about sociolinguistics is not true?


a. they are concerned more with performance that with competence


b. they look at society and at language


c. they are concerned with linguistic changes


d. they quantify what people say


e. they investigate the diffusion of genes between populations

e. they investigate the diffusion of genes between populations

Honorifics are terms used with people, often being added to their names, to "honor" them. Why would sociolinguists be interested in studying the use of honorifics?


a. they enable sociolinguists to study language and culture outside of its context because the same honorifics are used everywhere and they mean the same thing


b. because honorifics always honor the person being addressed, sociolinguists can study the positive side of language and culture


c. they may convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed


d. they provide data about how different languages are related to one another, which is what sociolinguists are primarily interested in


e. there is no reason for contemporary sociolinguists to be interested in honorifics because people don't use these terms anymore

c. they may convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed

Which of the following statements about Black English Vernacular (BEV) is false?


a. it lacks required linguistic depth to fully express thoughts


b. many aspects of BEV also are present in southern white speech


c. BEV effectively conveys meaning


d. linguists view BEV as a dialect of SE, not a different language


e. BEV has grammatical rules

a. it lacks required linguistic depth to fully express thoughts

_____ refers to the ability to create new expressions by combining other expression, while _____ is the ability to describe things and events that are not present.

Productivity, displacement

Variation in speech in different contexts or situations is known as _____.

style shifting

_____ refers to the existence of "high" and "low" dialects within a single language.

Diglossia

In a stratified society, even people who do not speak the prestige dialect tend to accept it as "standard" or superior. In Pierre Bourdieu's term this is an instance of _____.

symbolic domination

The world's linguistic diversity has been cut in half in the past _____ years, and half of the remaining _____ languages are predicted to disappear during this century.

500, 7000