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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

capital punishment

the death penalty (p. 174)

control theory

the idea that two control systems, inner and outer controls, work against our tendencies to deviate (p. 159)

corporate crime

crimes committed by executives in order to benefit their corporation (p. 166)


the violation of norms written into law (p. 154)

criminal justice system

the system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime (p. 168)

cultural goals

the objectives held out as legitimate or desirable for the members of a society to achieve (p. 163)

degradation ceremony

a term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to reshape someone's self by stripping away that individual's self-identity and stamping a new one in its place (p. 160)


the violation of norms (or rules or expectations) (p. 154)

differential association

Edwin Sutherland's term to indicate that people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant (p. 157)

genetic predisposition

inborn tendencies (e.g. a tendency to commit deviant acts) (p. 156)

illegitimate opportunity structure

opportunities for crimes that are woven into the texture of life (p. 165)

institutionalized means

approved ways of reaching cultural goals (p. 163)

labeling theory

the view that the labels people are given affect their own and others' perceptions of them, thus channeling their behavior into either deviance or conformity (p. 159)


the transformation of a human condition into a matter to be treated by physicians (p. 178)

medicalization of deviance

to make a deviance a medical matter; a symptom of some underlying illness that needs to be treated by physicians (p. 178)

negative sanction

an expression of disapproval for deviance, ranging from a mild, informal reaction, such as a frown, to a formal reaction, such as a prison sentence or an execution (p. 156)

personality disorders

the view that a personality disturbance of some sort causes an individual to violate social norms (p. 157)

positive sanction

a reward or positive reaction for conforming to norms, ranging from a smile to a formal award (p. 156)

recidivism rate

the percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested (p. 173)

serial murder

the killing of three or more victims in separate events (p. 175)

social control

a group's formal and informal means of enforcing its norms (p. 156)

social order

a group's usual and customary social arrangements, on which its members depend on and on which they base their lives (p. 156)


characteristics that discredit people (p. 154)

strain theory

Robert Merson's term for the strain engendered when a society socializes large numbers of people to desire a cultural goal (e.g. success) but withholds from some the approved means of reaching that goal; one adaptation is an innovative solution (i.e. crime) (p. 163)

street crime

crimes such as mugging, rape, and burglary (p. 156)

techniques of neutralization

ways of thinking or rationalizing that help people deflect (or neutralize) society's norms (p. 161)

white-collar crime

Edwin Sutherland's term for crimes committed by people of otherwise respectable and high social status in the course of their occupations; e.g. bribery of public officials, embezzlement ,etc. (p. 166)

Howard S. Becker

observed that an act is not deviant in and of itself, but only when there is a reaction to it (p. 154)

Emile Durkheim

noted that deviance is functional for a society (pp. 163, 179)

Robert Edgerton

documented how different human groups react to similar behaviors, demonstrating that what is deviant in one context is not in another (p. 155)

Erving Goffman

wrote about the role of stigma and the definition of who and what is deviant (p. 154)

Robert Merton

developed strain theory to explain patterns of deviance within a society (pp. 163-164, 178)

Edwin Sutherland

developed differential association theory and was the first to study and give a name to the crimes that occur among the middle class in the course of their work (i.e. "white collar crime") (pp. 157, 166)