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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Non-propostional speech

typically preserved in Global aphasia, automatic speech ("How are you?")

temporal lobe

receptive language, memory function

hypokinetic dysarthria

hoarseness, low volume, increased speech rate, associated with Parkinson disease

spastic dysarthria

damage to pyramidal tract, strained vocal quality, difficulty with fine motor movements, UMN

hyperkinetic dysarthria

associated with Huntington, lesions of the basal ganglia, strained vocal quality, involuntary movements

ataxic dysarthria

damage to cerebellum, harsh vocal quality, monostress, slurred speech

Flaccid dysarthria

damage to LMN (cranial nerves), monopitch/monoloudness, atrophy/paresis,

structuralist theory

children are born with the ability to acquire language, skills are acquired in an universal order

interactionist theory

children develop language through trial and error

natural theory

children develop language through sound imitation, because of immature motor abilities sounds are simplified

prosodic theory

children attempt to produce units/chunks of meaningful speech rather than individual phonemes

1st grammatical morpheme to be used expressively


VPI (velopharyngeal insufficiency)

speech characteristics can include glottal stops, pharyngeal stops, pharyngeal fricatives, backing


breathy vocal quality, lesions many grow back

accessory muscles

assist diaphragm and external intercostals when extra power is needed

-elevate ribs->add volume to thorax and lungs

story grammar analysis

1) setting

2) initiating event

3) reaction

4) attempt

5) consequence reaction

levator palatini

one of three players in elevation of soft palate

bilateral vocal nodules

result in gaps during vocal fold closure, lowered subglottal pressure, softer voice, harder to reach higher pitches


fundamental frequency=number of cycles per second

gray matter

soma cell bodies, contain neuronal bodies

white matter

myelin sheath


2 adajacent sounds replaced by a 3rd sound ('swim'->'fim')


insertion of a sound (typically a schwa)


switching of 2 sounds or syllables within a word

ischemic stroke

blood blocked within an artery to the brain


collection of blood materials blocking flow of blood


collection of blood materials or portions of tumor that travel and block the flow of blood in a smaller portion of artery


eruption of an artery resulting in blood spillage into the brain


within the meninges

nonfluent aphasias

Broca's, transcortical motor, mixed transcortical motor, global

Fluent Aphasias

Wernicke's, transcortical sensory, conduction, anomic

Type Token Ratio Test (TTR)

variety of words a child uses expressively

Distinctive Features Approach

establish missing distinctive features contrasts by teaching relevant sounds


how many new cases of a disorder occur annually


how many continuing cases of a disorder there are currently

Cranial Nerves

1) Olfactory

2) Optic

3) Oculomotor

4) Trochlear

5) Trigeminal

6) Abducens

7) Facial

8) Vestibulocochlear

9) Glossopharyngeal

10) Vagus

11) Spinal Accessory

12) Hypoglossal

Functions of Cranial Nerves

1) Smell

2) Vision

3) Eye Movement

4) Eye Movement

5) Face (sensory) and Jaw (motor)

6) Eye Movement (lateral rectus)

7) Face (movement) and Tongue (sensory)

8) Hearing and Balance

9) Tongue (sensory), pharynx (sensory/motor)

10) Larynx, gastrointestinal, cardiac

11) Shoulder, arm movements

12) Tongue (motor)

Reticular Activation System (RAS)


sleep/wake cycles

Pyramidal Systems

facilitating muscle movement, corticobular and corticospinal tracts

Corticobulbar Tract

all voluntary movements of speech muscles

Strident voice sound quality

Sounds shrill, high-pitched

Acoustic neuroma symptoms

tinnitus, dizziness, dysequilibrium

ALS manifestation

1) bulbar onset: damage initiates in corticobulbar tract, rapid negative speech effects

2) motor onset: damage initiates in spinal cord, first affects motor function


level where pyramidal tracts decussate-> contralateral functioning

basal ganglia

comprimised of mostly gray matter (neuronal bodies), receives input from frontal lobe and relays information via the thalamus

lifetime expectancy of stuttering

5% of the world's population has a probability of ever stuttering

age range where stuttering typically develops

3-6 years

Three types of repetitions (fluency)

1) Part-word

2) Word-level

3) Phrase Level

Dysfluency Forms

1) Repetitions

2) Sound Prolongations

3) Silent Prolongations

4) Interjections

5) Pauses

6) Broken Words

7) Incomplete Sentences

8) Revisions

Interjections (fluency)

extra element added to a word or phrase

-sound/syllable interjection

-word interjection

-phrase interjection

Male-female stuttering ratios

3:1 (early elementary)

4:1 (higher grades)

CN Innervation Sensory/Motor/Both

Some Money Matters More But My Big Brother Says Big Boobs matter most

Larynx Location

C3-C6 (normal anatomy)

Primary Palate

alveolar ridge and upper lip

Secondary Palate

Soft Palate (posterior to incisive foramen)

Anterior Cerebral Artery

frontal lobe (judgment, reasoning), corpus callosum, superior surface of parietal lobe

Middle Cerebral Artery

temporal lobe (memory/comprehension), Broca's area, Wernicke's area,