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285 Cards in this Set

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When can we depart?

When the reported weather at the departure airport is at or above takeoff minimums.

When is a departure (T.O) alternate required?

When reported weather at the departure airport is below landing minimums.

When can we dispatch an IFR flight?

When the indicated weather at the destination airport is at or above landing minimums. *Exception is flag flight overwater.

When is no alternate required for a domestic flight?

When the indicated weather at the destination, ETA +/- 1 hour, is at or above C=2000' and V=3SM.

When is no alternate required for a flag flight?

When the indicated weather at the destination within 6 hours or less ETE, +/- 1 hour, and C=1500' above the HAT or 2000', and V=higher of 2SM above landing minimums, or V=3SM.

When is it legal to file/list an alternate for a destination?

When the indicated weather at the alternate at the ETA is at or above alternate minimums.

When is two alternates required for a destination?

When the forecasted weather at the destination and 1st alternate are marginal.

En Route Amendment: Alternate for Destination

When the forecasted weather at the alternate while en route falls below alternate minimums.

What is the title of Part 1?

Definitions and Abbreviations

What is the title of Part 65?

Aircraft Dispatcher Certification

What does Part 65 entail?

Explains various requirements to become certified as an FAA aircraft dispatcher.

What is the title of Part 91?

General Operating and Flight Rules

What does Part 91 entail?

Basic pilot-based rules, such as 'pilot can't be carless or reckless.' Also, includes max IAS below 10,000' = 250kts.

What are the standard IFR minimums?

1SM for 1 or 2 engine aircraft. 1/2SM for 3 or 4 engine aircraft.

What are the standard IFR alternate minimums?

Precision Approach: C:600' and V=2SM. Non-Precision Approach: C:800' and V=2SM.

What is the title of Part 110?

General Requirements

What does Part 110 entail?

Explains domestic and flag operations, regular/provisional airports.

What is the title of Part 117?

Flight and Duty Limitations and Rest Requirements: Flight Crewmembers

What is the title of Part 119?

Certification: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators

What does Part 119 entail?

Much about OPSPECS (Operations Specifications, your airline's do's and don'ts.) Examples: Authorized routes, airplanes limitations, airports, minimums to use that are lower than standard, financial contract, wet lease, contact information (mailing address), whatever the Administrator deems necessary, maintenance scheduling, interline equipment change (using others equipment.)

If your OPSPECS deviates from FAA regulations, what should you do?

Follow your OPSPECS, as they have been approved by an FAA administrator!

What is the title of Part 121?

Operating Requirements: Domestic, Flag, and Supplemental Operations.

What does Part 121 entail?

Two parts. Subpart T, and Subpart U.

What does Part 121, Subpart T entail?

Flight Operations: includes rules on emergencies, landing with engine(s) inoperative, etc.

What does Part 121, Subpart U entail?

Dispatching and Flight Release Rules. Dispatching applies to domestic and flag air carriers, while flight release applies to supplemental air carriers. Any rules applicable to dispatching an aircraft, filing alternates, etc, is within Subpart U.

What is the title of Part 830?

Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, mail, cargo, and records.

What is the purpose of Part 830?

To be referenced to research terms and procedures when required to file an accident or incident report.

What is the title of Title 49 CFR 1544?

Aircraft Operator Security: Air Carriers and Commercial Operators

What is the purpose of Title 49 CFR 1544?

Discusses various airline security requirements and terms. *Deals with TSA.

What is NDB?

Non-Directional Radio Beacon, low to medium frequency (weaker). Navaid, normally useable below 18,000'.


VHF Omni-Directional Range, 360 useable radials (magnetic directions).


Distance Measuring Equipment.


VOR and DME together, gives the pilot course & distance information.

VOR Classifications - H

High Altitude, range 130NM.

VOR Classifications - L

Low Altitude, range 40NM

VOR Classifications - T

Terminal, even weaker, very few still around.


Instrument Landing System

Components to ILS

Localizer (LOC/LLZ) - primary component, provides azimuth (directional) guidance (too far to the right, or left while inbound).

Glideslope (GS)/Glidepath (GP) - coupled to the LOC. Cannot operate without the LOC. Provides descent (vertical) guidance.

When the GS fails....

The ILS reverts to a non-precision localizer approach; ILS landing minima no longer apply. Localizer landing minima do apply.

Marker Beacons

Provides range (distance) information.

DME is usually co-located with...

The Localizer.

Compass Locators

LMM (Locator Middle Marker - Middle Compass Locator)

LOM (Locator Outer Marker - Outer Compass Locator)

Precision Approach Procedure

Any instrument approach white utilizes an electronic glideslope. Examples include: ILS, ILS/DME, and PAR.

Non-Precisions Approach Procedure

Any instrument approach without the use of an electronic glideslope. Examples include: VOR, TACAN, NDB, LOC, LOC/DME, VOR/DME, ASR, LDA, SDF, LOC/BC.

Touchdown Zone (TDZ)

The first 3,000' beyond the threshold.

Touchdown Zone Elevation (TDZE)

The highest elevation within the touchdown zone.

Decision Altitude (DA)

The MSL altitude in the precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if required visual reference has not been established.

Decisions Height (DH)

An AGL number; Height of the DA above the ground (TDZE or threshold). DH is also known as the HAT.

Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)

The lowest authorized MSL altitude in the non-precision approach without visual reference established.

Minimum Descent Height (MDH)

Height of the MDA above ground (TDZE or threshold). MDH is also known as HAT or HAA depending on whether the minimums are S-IN or Circling, respectively.

Height Above Touchdown (HAT)

An AGL number; Applies to Straight-In minimums only.

Height Above Airport (HAA)

An AGL number; Height of the MDA above airport elevation. HAA is used in conjunction with Circling minimums only.

Aircraft Approach Category ***

A grouping of aircraft based on 1.3 times the stall speed in landing configuration (flaps and gear extended) at maximum gross landing weight..

What Category is the B727-200 for S-IN landings?

Category C

What Category is the B727-200 for Circling maneuvers (landing)?

Category D


Area Navigation


Required Navigation Performance Airspace - RNP is the required navigational performance within a certain airspace structure, along a given route or when flying some instrument approach procedures. It is normally expressed as "RNP-x", where the "x" represents the maximum lateral track error in nautical miles that can be maintained at least 95% of the time.

NAT HLA (North Atlantic High Level Airspace)

Extends from FL285 to FL420

RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minima)

Extends from FL290 to FL410. (Also falls within NAT HLA airspace as well.)


Approach Light System


Approach Lighting System with Sequenced Flashing Lights, Category 2 configuration.

MALSR (R... Think of RAIL)

Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.


Visual Approach Slope Indicator


Precision Approach Path Indicator


Runway End Identifier Lights


High Intensity Runway Lights


Medium Intensity Runway Lights


Touchdown Zone Lights


Runway Centerline Lights


Runway Alignment Indicator Lights


Runway Centerline Markings


The designated beginning of the runway that is available and suitable for landing.

Displaced Threshold

Located at a point on the runway other than the designated beginning of the runway. A threshold may be temporarily displaced or relocated due to construction. A displaced threshold is usually caused by obstructions in the approach path, pavement weaknesses or cracks, or noise abatement procedures.


Landing Distance Available. The landing length beyond the threshold.


Effective Runway Length.

Class A Airspace

18,000' MSL up to FL600.

Class B Airspace

Busiest Airports. From surface up to 10,000' MSL. 25-30NM radius.

Class C Airspace

4,000' AGL. 10NM radius.

Class G Airspace



Eastward flight, fly at odd altitudes. Westward flight, fly at even altitudes.

Prohibited Area

Contain airspace of variable lateral/vertical dimensions within which flight is prohibited/not permitted. Usually for national defense/security reasons.

Restricted Area

Contain airspace of variable dimensions and active times within which a flight is subject to restrictions. Gunnery, missiles, military activity - Need ATC approval to enter.

Warning Area

Airspace of defined dimensions, extending from 3NM outward from the coast of the U.S., that may contain hazards (similar to Restricted Areas) to nonparticipating aircraft.

Military Operations Areas (MOA)

MOAs consist of airspace of variable dimensions established for the purpose of separating certain military activities from IFR traffic. (Much military flying within MOA.)


Clearance Delivery - Dliver clearances at congested airports. Cpt = Clearance prior to taxi.


Air Route Traffic Control Center


Automatic Terminal Information Service. Continuous broadcast of recorded non-control (weather, notices, active runways, etc.) information at high activity airports.


Primary Radar. Operates on the principle of reflection.


Secondary Radar. Operates on the principle of transmission. (Involves the use of a transponder in the airplane.)




Loss of Communications




Low Level Wind Shear Alert System.


Terminal Doppler Weather Radar


Land and Hold Short Operations. Improves traffic flow. However, reduces LDA and safety.

Flow Control

Accomplished by: Gate Holding (implemented when anticipated delays >15 minutes), En route holding, rerouting traffic, designated one-way routes, and cruise altitude/speed changes.

Non-RVSM Airspace is separated every...


RVSM airspace is separated every...


Notice to Airmen (NOTAM). What are the types?

NOTAM (D - 'distant'), Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAMs, Pointer NOTAMs, Special Activity Airspace (SAA) NOTAMs, and Military NOTAMs.


Pre-Departure Clearance


Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System


Controller Pilot Data Link Communications - Supplements air/ground voice communications.

Jet Route System established from...

18,000' MSL to FL450, inclusive.

Operation above FL450 may be conducted...

On a point to point basis.


Changeover Points. Established for the purpose of preventing loss of navigation guidance, to prevent frequency interference from other facilities, and to prevent use of different facilities by different aircraft in the same airspace.


Standard Terminal Arrival Procedures - purpose is to simplify clearance delivery procedures and facilitate transition between en route and instrument approach procedures. Useful for determining distances, courses, and primary route selection.


Instrument Approach Procedure Chart, or "Approach Plate". Approach minimums are based on the local altimeter setting for that airport.


Wide Area Augmentation System - to enhance, help, or improve GPS signal coverage and accuracy.


Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance.


LNAV - Lateral Navigation. VNAV - Vertical Navigation.


Localizer Performance. LP approaches are non-precision approaches that require the use of WAAS.


This minima is for lateral navigation only.


Terminal Arrival Area


Minimum Safe/Sector Altitudes - Provide 1,000' clearance over all obstructions, but do not necessarily assure acceptable navigation signal coverage. Expressed on approach charts in MSL.


No procedure turn required (or authorized).

Parallel ILS Approaches

At least 2,500' between RCLMs, and approaches must be staggered. Radar monitoring is not required.

Simultaneous Parallel ILS Approaches

Centerlines separated by 4,300' to 9,000'. Require radar monitoring to ensure separation between aircraft on the adjacent parallel approach course.

Simultaneous Close Parallel ILS Approaches

Centerlines separated by 4,300' or lower. Must have precision radar monitoring.

Side-step Maneuver

Runways must be separated by 1,200' or less, straight-in landing on the adjacent runway.

Missed Approach Fuel

SHALL be considered, not mandatory. For our plane (B727-200), it is 1,200LBs.

Visual Approach

Conducted under IFR flight plan, authorizes pilot to proceed visually and clear of clouds to the airport. Reported weather at the airport must be C=1,000' or more, and V=3SM or more.

Contact Approach

Under IFR flight plan, provided they are clear of clouds and have at least 1 mile of flight visibility, may request ATC for authorization for a contact approach. ONLY the PIC can request the contact approach.


Air Defense Identification Zones - To facilitate early aircraft identification of all aircraft in the vicinity of the U.S. and international airspace boundaries.


MAYDAY three times.


PAN-PAN three times.

Emergency Frequencies

121.5MHZ and 243.0MHZ

Fuel Dumping

To reduce aircraft weight within safe landing limits. Not all aircraft have fuel dumping capabilities. Ours dumps fuel at 2,400 ppm, and decreases weight while flying at 2,500 ppm.

Minimum Fuel Advisory

Close to an emergency, but not yet. Just notify's the ATC that they are getting close to running low on fuel and don't need to be put on any further delay if it can be helped.

Final Approach Fix

Designated on Government charts by a Maltese Cross for non-precision approaches, and a lightning bolt for precision approaches.

Glideslope Intercept Altitude

The minimum altitude to intercept the glideslope/path on a precision approach


Maximum Authorized Altitude - Maximum usable altitude or flight level for an airspace or route segment. Keeps from aircraft flying into altitudes that are causing interference with frequencies.


Minimum Crossing Altitude - The lowest altitude at certain fixes at which an aircraft must cross when proceeding in the direction of an MEA.


Minimum Enroute IFR Altitude - The lowest altitude between radio fixes which assures acceptable navigational signal coverage and meets obstacle clearance requirements by 1,000' (2,000' in mountainous terrain). Assures two way communications.


Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude - Lowest altitude in effect between radio fixes which meets obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route segment and which assures acceptable navigational signal coverage, only within 22 miles of a VOR.


Minimum Reception Altitude - Lowest altitude required to receive adequate signals from an off-route NAVAID to determine specific fixes. If DME is used to identify the fix, the MRA does not apply.


Missed Approach Point - A point prescribed in each instrument approach procedure at which a missed approach procedure shall be executed if the required visual reference does not exist.


Off Route Obstruction Clearance Altitude - Highest possible elevation including both terrain and other vertical obstructions. Provides an additional vertical buffer of 1,000' in designated non-mountainous areas and a 2,000' vertical buffer in designated mountainous areas within the US. Does not provide NAVAID signal coverage, communication coverage, and would not be consistent with altitudes assigned by ATC.

Compulsory Reporting Point

A radio fix at which the pilot must contact ATC, unless the aircraft is in radar contact. SOLID TRIANGLE.

Non-Compulsory Reporting Point

A radio fix at which no report to ATC is required, unless instructed to do so by ATC. CLEAR/OPEN UNSHADED TRIANGLES.


Air Traffic Control System Command Center

Extended Overwater Operation

More than 50NM offshore.


On the flight and performing assigned duties on such flight.

Are the OPSPECS part of the certificate?


How can the OPSPECS be amended?

With approval of the FAA Administrator.

Airport Authorization

Regular, Provisional, Refueling, Alternate.

What can't happen while stopped at a refueling airport...?

Anything paying to be on the plane can't be taken off the plane while stopping at the refueling airport. Also nothing else can be put on the plane either.

Flight Data Recorder

Flap Position, Airspeed, Altitude, Heading, Thrust, Throttle Position, Time, Transmission Time, OAT, Manifold Pressure, Vertical Acceleration.

Can we dispatch without weather radar during IFR or night VFR conditions?

Only if no reports of thunderstorms or other hazardous conditions that a radar could detect are along the route - otherwise, day VMC only.

Initial Training

When you haven't been trained in the same group of aircraft. Group 1 vs. Group 2.

Transition Training

When you are going/training from one type of the same group, to another type. EX: 727 to 747.

Differences Training

Same type, but different series. EX: 727-200 to 727-400.

Recurrent Training is...

Every 12 calendar months.

Recurrent Training includes...

Instruction, quiz or other review, and competency check.

Dispatcher Responsibilities shared with PIC

Preflight Planning, sign dispatch release, cancel/delay flight.

Dispatcher Responsibilities not shared with PIC

Monitor flight progress, issue significant information, redispatch or amendments.


He who declares the emergency, does the paperwork. A dispatcher declaring an emergency shall submit a report through the operations manager within 10 days.

Intermediate stops - Domestic Flight

No longer than 1 hour before redispatching.

Intermediate stops - Flag Flight

No longer than 6 hours before redispatching.

How far away may a takeoff alternate be for a 2 engine aircraft?

No more than 1 hour in still air at NSC with one engine INOP.

How far away may a takeoff alternate be for a 3 or 4 engine aircraft?

No more than 2 hours in still air at NSC with one engine INOP

No Alternate Required

Regardless of domestic or flag, the decision is based on: Indicated weather, at the destination, at ETA plus or minus 1 hour.

When does a flag flight NOT require an alternate?

When the ETA is less than or equal to 6 hours.

Flat Flight with no authorized alternate?

Fly to the airport to which dispatched, and fly for 2 hours at NSCFF.

Fuel Supply - Domestic

Fly to the airport to which dispatched.

Fuel Supply - Alternate

Fuel to fly and land at the most distant alternate.

Fuel Supply - Reserve

Fly 45 minutes at NSCFF.

Fuel Supply - Flag

Fly to the airport to which dispatched. Fly 10% ETE between departure and airport to which dispatched. Fly to and land at the most distant alternate. Fly 30 minutes at holding fuel flow at ISA.

Terrain clearance for Method 1?

1000' to Destination

Terrain clearance for Method 2?

2000' to Alternate. Fuel Dumping is ONLY allowed for Method 2!

What will happen with Drift Down Performance if an engine fails enroute?

Loose altitude and airspeed.

Regardless of method, how high of a positive slope must the aircraft achieve above the airport of landing?


Which aircraft group are more susceptible to drift down limitations?

Group 1

727-200 complies with Method 1 at all points in the Contiguous 48 states up to...

ISA + 20 degrees celsius.

Surface Analysis Chart

Every 3 hours. Reported. Primarily used to locate pressure systems. Low - Counter clockwise, cyclonic, inward and outwards. High - Clockwise, anti-cyclonic, outwards and downwards.

Weather Depiction Chart

Reported. Every 3 hours. Depicts area of IFR. Does NOT depict winds.

Radar Summary

Reported, every hour. No warnings are depicted, ONLY WATCHES.

Constant Pressure Analysis Chart

Reported, twice a day. Hatching/Non-Hatching, 40kt increments. Hatching starts at 70 - 110. Non-Hatching 110 - 150, and so on. Star - Satellite reporting. Square - Airplane reporting (Will be in flight level!)

Weather Prog Chart

400MB = ~FL240. Left panels - 12 hour. Right panels - 24 hour.

Ideal Air

Lacking Moisture

Composition of Air

78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% Other

Composition of Air in Coastal Regions

74% Nitrogen, 20% Oxygen, 5% Water Vapor, 1% Other.


Largest portion of the atmosphere. Primarily isothermal.

What is the primary characteristic of the Trophosphere?

Temperature lapse rate, 2 degrees celsius / 1000' (getting colder).


Stable air, get's warmer as you go higher in altitude. Flight hazards? Poor visibility, icing, and turbulence.


Abrupt change in lapse rate. Highest wind speeds, jet streams found here, and turbulence.

Define ISA

International Standard Atmosphere

Temperature at Sea Level?

15 degrees Celsius or 59 degrees F. Also, 29.92"Hg, or 1013.2mb or hectopascals.

Indicated Altitude

The altitude indicated on the altimeter when set to the local altimeter setting.

True altitude

Actual altitude above MSL (Mean Sea Level)

Absolute Altitude

Actual altitude AGL (Above Ground Level).

Pressure Altitude

Altitude that your altimeter will indicate when its set to 29.92"Hg. Start using this at 18,000' MSL and above.

Density Altitude

Pressure Altitude corrected for non-standard temperature. Also, Temperature and Density Altitude are best buds!

Altimetry Rules

High Pressure to Low Pressure - TA < IA (High to low, look out below.

Low Pressure to High Pressure - TA > IA.


Moisture content, temperature, pressure. High Density = Better Performance.

What determines the amount of moisture the air can hold?

Outside air temperature. Warmer - Holds more moisture. Colder - Holds less.

Definition of Dewpoint?

Temperature at which the temperature must be cooled to become saturated.

Definition of relative humidity?

Amount of moisture actually in the air, vs. what could be in the air.

What are the four cloud families?

Low, Mid, High, Extensive Vertical Development (CB's, TCU's, etc.)

Stratiform vs. Cumuliform

Stratiform is stable, Cumuliform is unstable.

Horizontal Wind Shear

Moderate Turbulence - Greater than or equal to 18kts / 150NM.

Severe Turbulence - Greater than or equal to 40 kts / 150NM.

Vertical Wind Shear

Moderate Turbulence - Greater than or equal to 6kts per 1000'

Severe Turbulence - Greater than or equal to 10 kts per 1000'.


Height above the earths surface to the lowest cloud base (broken or overcast), or obscuring phenomena aloft (smoke, etc.) Also, vertical visibility into a surface based total obscuration (fog.)

Effects of structural icing

Increased weight, increased stall speed, increased drag. Decreased lift, decreased thrust.

What determines the type of ice?

Size of water droplet.

Large Droplets

Clear Ice

Small Droplets

Rime Ice

Combination of both size droplets

Mixed ice.

Clear Ice more common in...

Cumuliform clouds.

Rime ice more common in...

Stratiform clouds.

Supercooled water droplet temps for Cumuliform Clouds?

0 degrees celsius to -15 degrees celsius.

Supercooled water droplet temps for Stratiform clouds?

0 degrees celsius to -10 degrees celsius.

Freezing Level

Altitude that reaches at or below 0 degrees celsius.

Possible to get icing above freezing level?

Yes by a couple of degrees above freezing level, due to aerodynamic cooling.

Prevailing Visibility

The greatest distance an object can be seen and identified through 180 degrees of the horizon circle. Need not be continuous.

Severe Thunderstorm

Surface Winds greater than or equal to 50 knots, and/or hail greater than or equal to 3/4ths of an inch in diameter.

Severe Icing

Icing that accumulates faster than anti-icing or de-icing systems can prevent or remove. Also, icing that accumulates in areas that are not prone to accumulate ice.




Low Drifting. Less than 6 feet.


Blowing. Greater than or equal to 6 feet.












Dust Storm


Funnel Cloud


Tornado or Water Spout




Sky Clear (Human Observation)


Sky Clear (Automated Station)


Clam Wind, less than 3kts. Assume tail wind.


Showers in the vicinity. Anything with VC will never be associated with any intensity.


Between 5 - 10 SM from the station/airport.


Distant, more than 10SM away.

At the Station/Airport

Less than 5SM.

Definition of a front

Boundary where two air masses meet.

Definition of an air mass

Body of air with similar temperature and moisture.


Cold, Warm, Stationary, Occluded. Cold air masses moves faster than warm air masses.

Two different types of occluded fronts.

Cold occlusion, and warm occlusion.

Frontal Waves

Beginning or incipant stage of poor weather, an occluded front. (Low pressure system starts before the occluded front).

Squall Lines

Forms ahead of cold fronts.

What ALWAYS changes with frontal passage?

Surface wind direction.

Stable air resists....

Vertical displacement

How do we determine the stability of the atmosphere?

Ambient temperature lapse rate.

Unstable air does not....

Resist vertical displacement.


Equal to or less than 2 degrees celsius per 1000 feet.


Greater than 2 degrees Celsius per 1000 feet.


Persistant precipitation, poor visibility, less frequent turbulence. Stratiform clouds.


Shower Precipitation, better (good) visibility, more frequent turbulence, cumulus clouds.

Mountain Wave

Wind blowing perpendicular to the mountain, stable air on the other side (leeward side of the mountain), wind speeds of 30 - 40 knots or greater. Types of clouds - Rotor clouds, cirrocumulus standing lenticular clouds, altocumulus standing lenticular clouds. Rotor, CCSL, ACSL respectively.

Three stages of a thunderstorm

Cumulus Stage. Mature Stage. Dissipating Stage.

Air Mass vs. Steady State. Which is more damaging?

Steady State.

Which lasts longer?

Steady State. Air mass is self destructive in nature.

Thunderstorm risks

Turbulence, icing, hail, LLWS, low visibility, tornados, lightning, microbursts.

Radiation Fog

Forms in the evening, terrestrial radiation (overnight cooling).

Advection Fog

Moist air moves over a cooler surface.

Upslope Fog

Air moving upslope a mountain and cools to the dewpoint.

Ice Fog

Fog that is cooled to -32 degrees celsius.

Frontal Fog

Fog that forms with the passing of a front, often with a warm front but could be with a cold front.

Jet Stream

Narrow band of wind, with wind speeds of at least 50 knots.

Polar Jet Stream

Moves south during the winter months, get's higher in elevation, and speeds increase.

Jet stream dimensions

1000's of miles long, 100's of miles wide, and 1000's of feet deep.

Clear Air Turbulence

Climb when the temperature is getting warmer. Descend when the temperature is getting colder.

Why not turn? Could get into worse turbulence, or just stay in the same CAT/frontal boundary.


Reported, published every hour.


Published as needed. (Weather is getting rapidly worse or getting rapidly better).


Automated station, with no human interference whatsoever.


Correction (There was an error in the previous METAR).

Best visibility we can ever have with fog?

Less than or equal to 1/2 sm.

Best visibility we can ever have with mist?

3/4SM, up to 6SM.


Area Forecast

Convective SIGMET

WST - Valid for 2 hours.


2 - 6 hours.

Numbering System

West, Central, East.


21st Convective SIGMET issued for the East Region of the day.


WS - Every 4 hours. Non-Convective activity. Severe or greater turbulence and icing. Also volcanic ash.


Every 6 hours. Sierra - Mountain Obscurations and Widespread IFR. Moderate Conditions. Tango - Moderate Turbulence and strong surface winds. Zulu - Moderate Icing.

System A

Two Engine Driven Pumps

Lower Rudder, outboard flight spoilers, ground spoilers, trailing edge flaps, leading edge flaps and slats, tailskid, gear actuation, nose gear steering, elevators, ailerons.

System B

Two Electric Pumps

Brakes, Inboard Flight Spoilers, Upper Rudder, Air Stairs, Elevators, Ailerons.

Standby System

One Electric Pump

Lower Rudder, Leading Edge Devices (slates/flaps).

Primary flight controls

Rudders, Ailerons, and Elevators.

What type of engines do we have?

Pratt and Whitney JT8D-7 turbofan engines

N1 has...

6 stages

N2 has...

7 stages.

First wheel drives...


Last three wheels drive...