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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define sex

Male or female genitalia determines this and it's decided at conception when the sperm meets the egg.

What is gender?

Determined by the way a person behaves and thinks, represented as masculine/feminine/androgynous.

What does the Biological Approach dictate?

That gender is decided at conception, at the same time sex is. Chromosomes XX mean female and feminine and XY means male thus masculine.

Human behaviour is instinctive to help us survive and reproduce.

When do the hormones kick in and what do they do?

Usually at 6 weeks old. Until then, male and females foetuses both have identical gonads but male hormones turn these into testes but females don't have this hormone so the gonads automatically turn to ovaries.

What is testosterone said to do?

Make boys more aggressive, better mathematical skills and spatial awareness.

What does oestrogen do?

Sensitive. Lack of testosterone makes girls' verbal skills better.

Why are females coyer than men?

They only have around 400 eggs to use and thus want to pick a mate well whereas men produce millions of sperm every day so they ok and can play the field like the fuckboys they are

Why are females more caring?

They have evolved looking after the young and to care for needy babies but men are aggressive to fight for resources to provide their families with.

How has evolution affected skills?

Men have better spatial awareness because they need aim to hunt and throw a spear. Women need good verbal skills to interact with young and share childcare with other mothers.

Explain the 'gender roles can be learnt' criticism for Sex & Gender.

Ignores the fact that gender roles can be learnt. There's a lot of evidence that shows families socialise males and females differently and this may be why they end up acting differently. For example, men are rewarded for being tough whilst girls are rewarded for being lady-like. Similarly, if a child behaves like the opposite gender they are ridiculed.

Name the 3 criticisms of the Biological Approach to sex and gender.

Ignores that gender roles can be learnt, sexes show a range of behaviours, biology is fixed but gender roles have changed.

Explain the 'range of behaviours within sexes' criticism in sex and gender.

For example, two men both have the same chromosome patterns and similar levels of testosterone but one can be very masculine but the other can be very feminine. This approach does not explain this.

Explain the gender roles criticism in Sex and Gender.

Gender roles change across time and this suggests behaviour is more to do with socialising. For example, males and females are now more androgynous than ever but our biology has not changed. Also, gender roles vary from country to country. Most of what is done by both sexes in Japan is seen as feminine in the UK and in tribes, both men and women can be warriors and in other tribes women dealt with the economics while men sat gossiping.

What is the Alternative Theory to Sex and Gender?

The psycho-dynamic approach says that gender is less to do with biology and more to do with upbringing and the role of parents. Without the parent around, the child's gender identity does not develop properly.

What is the Oedipus complex?

Boys desire their mother and fear that their father will find out and cut off their penis: this is castration anxiety. This is resolved when boys identify with their father and develop a masculine identity.

What is the Electra complex?

Girls desire their father because they desire a penis: penis envy. Penis envy also causes girls to be interested in phallic shaped things like towers.

They blame their mother for the lack of penis as they think they've already been castrated. Accepting the lack of penis, they begin to want a baby as a penis substitute. Girls then identify with their mother who 'is in the same position' and develop a feminine gender identity.

Who came up with the Electra and Oedipus complexes?


Outline Diamond and Sigmundson's study.

Supports the biological theory. They researched the case of a twin boy who had been raised as a girl. Bruce's penis was burnt off and reconstruction was not an option. A psychologist named Money suggested raising him as a girl because he was a psycho-dynamic dude. The parents raised Bruce as Brenda.

Results of Diamond & S's study?

Brenda was fine until puberty when she began to need hormones to develop hips and breasts. She had a masculine appearance and mannerisms and reported that she felt like a man inside. Later she had a sex change and married a woman. D&S concluded that chromosomes outweighed his socialisation thus Bio applies.

Name the three limitations of Diamond and S's study.

Case studies rely on small samples. Case studies are based on natural situations so variables can't be controlled. Researchers may become too involved less objective.

Explain the issue of Money's involvement in Brenda's case.

He was very involved and thus may have interpreted results to suit his approach.

How can gender studies be applied to life?

Equal opportunities for the sexes. Equal opportunities in education and work.