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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a reduction in response cause by prior or continuing stimulation
sensory transducer
a receptor that coverts physical energy from the environment into neural activity
the idea that the mind produces ideas that are not derived from external sources, and that we have abilities that are innate and not learned
the idea that both mind and body exist
mind and matter are formed from, or reducible to, a single ultimate substance or principle of being
physical matter is the only reality, and everything including the mind can be explained in terms of matter and physical phenomena. Materialism is a type of monism
the idea that the mind is the true reality, and objects exist only as aspects of the mind's awareness. mentalism is a type of monism
mind-body dualism
originated by Rene Descartes, the idea positing the existence of two distinct principles of being in the universe: spirit/soul and matter/body
the idea that experience from the senses is the only source of knowledge
the idea that all matter has consciousness
the science of defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological events
two-point threshold
the minimum distance at which two stimuli are just perceptible as separate
just noticeable difference (JND)
smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, or the minimum change in a stimulus that can be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus
weber fraction
the constant of proportionality in Weber's law
weber's law
the principle that the just noticeable difference (JND) is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus
fechner's law
principle describing the relationsip between stimulus magnitude and resulting sensation magnitude such that the magnitude of subjective sensation increases proportionally to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity
absolute threshold
minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50% of the time
method of constant stimuli
a psychophysical method in which many stimuli, ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable, are presented one at a time. participants respond to each presentation: yes/no same/different
method of limits
a psychophysical method in which the particular dimension of a stimulus, or the difference between two stimuli, is varied incrementally until the participant responds differently
method of adjustment
the method of limits for which the subject controls the change in the stimulus
receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve
the graphical plot of the hit rate as a function of the false alarm rate. If these are the same, points fall on diagnol, indicating that the observer cannot tell the difference between the presence and absence of the signal. As the observer's sensitivity increases, the curve bows upward toward the upper left corner. that point represents a perfect ability to tell signal from noise
signal detection theory
psychophysical theory that quantifies the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of noise. measures attained from a series of presentations are sensitivity and criterion of the observer
magnitude estimation
a psychophysical method in which the participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli
stevens' power law
a principle describing the relationship between stimulus magnitude and resulting sensation magnitude, such that the magnitude of subjective sensation is proportional to the stimulus magnitude raised to an exponent
doctrine of specific nerve energies
a doctrine formulated by johannes muller stating that the nature of a sensation depends on which sensory fibers are stimulated, not on how fibers are stimulated.
cranial nerves
twelve pairs of nerves that originate in the brain stem and reach sense organs and muscles through openings in the skull
olfactory I nerves
the first pair of cranial nerves, which conduct impulses from the mucous membranes of the nose to the olfactory bulb
olfactory II
2 pair of cranial nerves. which arise from the retina and carry visual information to the thalamus and other parts of the brain
olfactory VIII
8th pair of cranial nerves, which connect the inner ear with the brain, transmitting impulses concerned with hearing and balance. the auditory nerve is composed of the cochlear nerve and the vestibular nerve and therefore is sometimes referred to as the vestibulocochlear nerve
oculomotor III
3rd pair of cranial nerves. which innervate all the extrinsic muscles of the eye except the lateral rectus and the superior oblique muscles, and which innervate the elevator muscle of the upper eyelid, the ciliary muscle, and the sphincter muscle of the pupil
trochlear IV nerves
4th pair of cranial nerves, which innervate the superior oblique muscles of the eyeball
abducens VI nerves
6th pair of cranial nerves, which innervate the lateral rectus muscle of each eye
a blending of multiple sensory systems
idea that vital forces are active within living organism, and these forces cannot be explained by physical processes of matter more generally.
the junction between neurons that permits information transfer
a chemical substance used in neuronal communication at synapses