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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nursing Interventions for use of Barium Contrast
low residue diet or clear liquid diet for two days
client NPO after midnight; clear liquids allowed
use cathartic: magnesium citrate, GoLYTELY
before test, give suppository or enema
retained barium may harden and cause an obstruction - a mild laxative or cleansing enema may be ordered to help client expel barium
examine client's stools - white stools for 24 to 72 hours are common
force fluids after a barium procedure to aid in elimination of barium
Nursing Interventions for use of Air Contrast in Radiography
low residue diet for one day prior to test
NPO after midnight
ask client if allergic to seafood
Nursing Interventions for Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
clear liquid breakfast then NPO
client must lie flat for eight to 12 hours after test if oily contrast medium is used
force fluids post-test to replace cerebrospinal fluid
mild analgesics may be ordered post-test for headache
sinus node generates impulse; atria depolarize
PR Interval
time for impulse to travel from sinus node through atria to atrioventricular node, the Bundle of His, the bundle branches and the ventricles; range: 0.12-0.20 seconds
QRS complex
ventricle depolarizes and contracts (systole
T Wave
ventricle repolarizes, ready for next systole
ST segement
time between ventricular depolarization and repolarization
3 lead EKG placement
(White) on the right, smoke (Black) over fire (Red).
Ambulatory ECG (Holter Monitor)
records myocardial activity continuously for 24 or 48 hours
portable device
used to detect cardiac rhythm disturbances over time
correlated with client's activity
specific nursing intervention - client must keep a diary that records both activity and any symptoms during test
Event Monitor
Similar to Holter
symptoms of abnormal heart rhythms are recorded when they occur - client either starts monitoring or it starts automatically
simultaneous interpretation and instruction
Electrophysiology Study
an invasive measure of cardiac electrical activity
electrical catheter is inserted into right atrium via a peripheral vein
an EKG records each electrical stimulation of heart and how the heart responds
used to determine cardiac dysrhythmias
records electrical activity at various brain sites
specific nursing interventions
do not stop anticonvulsant medications
the night before test, adult clients should have minimal sleep
hair should be washed prior to test
avoid alcohol, coffee, tea and colas with caffeine prior to the test
help client remove paste after test
records electrical activity in muscle sites

test is painful
nursing: explain to client that a small needle will be inserted into one or more muscles and electrodes are placed on the skin overlying the muscle
measures auditory function
nursing intervention: be aware that client may experience vertigo
assure client safety
Schick Test
intradermal injection of dilute diphtheria toxin into the arm
area examined at 24 and 36 hours after administration
determines presence of diphtheria antitoxins in the blood
positive reaction (indicating no antibodies) = redness, swelling and tenderness at site of toxin injection
negative reaction: no reaction
Romberg Test
for balance
assess vestibular function
client stands with feet together and eyes closed
minimal swaying expected
Tidal Volume
Volume of air inhaled and exhaled during one respiratory cycle
5-10 mL/kg
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Maximum air client can inhale after a normal inspiration
3000 mL
Vital Capacity
Volume of air exhaled after a maximal inhalation
4800 mL
Levin (single lumen)
stomach tube used to remove stomach contents or provide feeding tube
Salem sump (double lumen)
stomach tube; mostly used to decompress with suction
Sengstaken-Blakemore (triple lumen)
gastric tue with inflatable esophagus balloon, stomach ballon, gastric suction lumen used for treatment of bleeding esophageal varices
Keofeed/Dobhoff Tube
long term feedings, take 24 hrs to pass from stomach into intestines; lay on right side to facilitate passage
Cantor (single lumen)
has mercury filled balloon and suction port
Miller-Abbott (double lumen)
has mercury filled balloon and suction port
pH aspirate
gastric: less than or equal to 4

Intestinal: >4

Respiratory: >5.5
What is the normal CVP pressure
3-12 cm water; 2-6 mmHg
.3-1.0 mg/dL
15-45 mcg/dL

detect liver disorders

diagnose acute and chronic pancreatitis, biliary obstruction, hepatitis, cirrhosis
Serum albumin (protein studies)
proteins produced by the liver
levels may diminsh in hepatic disease
severely decrease levels result in generalized edema

normal: 3.5-5.5 g/dL
Coagulation studies
may be prolonged in hepatic disease; PTT due to lack of vitamin K

PT: 9.5-12 seconds

PTT: (20-25)- (32-39)
Liver enzymes
Liver cells damaged so enzymes are released into bloodstream

AST: 8-40 units
ALT:8-40 units
LDH: 100-225 units/L
Creatine Kinase (CK)
Used to diagnose acute MI; 3-5 hours to detect

Man: 50 to 235
Woman: 50-250
Child: 0-70
Creatinine (CR)
test of renal function
NPO 8 hours

adult: .7-1.4
child: .4-1.2
infant: .3-.6
men: 35-70
women: 35-85
optimal: <139
Borderline : 140-160
High: >160
man: 4.6-6.2
woman: 4.2-5.4
child: 3.2-5.2
adult: 5,000-10,000
child: 5,000-13,000
Huntington's Disease Findings
Depression and tremor outbursts
Slight to severe resltessness
Facial grimacing
Arm movements
Irregular leg movements
Twisting, turning, struggling
tongue movements
Person in constant motion bye end of disease progression

Irritability, demanding, paranoia, memory loss, decreased intellectual function, dementia, psychosis in end
Huntington's Disease Intervention
Librium, Haldol, Thorazine