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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the morpholog. characteristics of a SPHEROCYTE?
-spherical RBC w/ dense Hgb

-decreased Surface:Volume ratio
What are 2 physiologic. diffnces about the RBC spherocyte?
1. Membrane is abnormal.
2. Fragments are lost from hitting fibrin or diseased vessels; result of incomplete phagocytosis.
what 2 clinical disorders do spherocytes indicate?
-hereditary spherocytosis

-acquired immunohemolytic anemia
What is a codocyte?
a target cell
what are 2 morph chrctstcs of a codocyte?
1. RBC w/ central pigmentation (should have a complete pallor)

2. Increased SA:Vol ratio
what are 3 physiological diffnces in the codocyte?
1. Hgb synthesis failed.
2. Cholesterol/phospholipid accumulated on membrane.
3. Postsplenectomy, retics can't lose lipid fast enough.
what 3 disorders are codocytes seen in?
1. Hemoglobinapathies
2. Liver disease
3. Post-splenectomy.
what is hereditary spherocytosis?
genetic, dominant autosomal defect.
Spectrin is defective; RBCs get stuck in the spleen - not deformable enough.
-what is it?
-what's another name for it?
-RBC w/ weird, blunt spicules of varying lengths.

aka, SPUR cell
what causes acanthocytes?
an increase in the membrane Cholesterol:Lecithin ratio
What 3 pathologies do acanthocytes indicate?
1. Abetalipoproteinemia
2. Liver disease
3. Pyruvate kinase deficiency
-what are they?
-2 other names?
-RBC w/ spicules EVENLY distrib.

aka, burr/crenated cells
Why do Echinocytes form?
(2 causes)
1. Because environm. inside or outside the cell changes,

2. Plasma or metabolic changes make fatty acids/lysolecithin accumulate on RBC surface.
Are echinocytes reversible?
are spherocytes?
what 2 clinical disorders do echinocytes indicate?
1. uremia
2. pyruvate deficiency thermal injury
what are stomatocytes?
what are they also called?
-uniconcave inst. of biconcave.
-slit pallor instead of central

also called mouth cells
what causes stomatocytes?
alterations in membrane that make cation permeability, content, and flux abnormal.
what 3 clinical disorders are stomatocytes seen in?
1. hereditary stomatocytosis from liver disease.
2. Alcoholic Liver cirrhosis
3. cancer - malignancies
what are elliptocytes?
what's another name?
oval-elongated ellipsoid cells.

aka, ovalocytes
what 2 things cause elliptocytes?
1. hereditary abnormality
2. acquired alteration
2 clinical disorders that are indicated by elliptocytes:
1. Hereditary elliptocytosis
2. various anemias
What are schizocytes?
2 more names?
Extremely distorted, fragmented cells.

Schistocytes, helmet cells
What 2 things cause schizocytes?
1. Impact with Fibrin/diseased vessel/artificial surface.

2. Microspherocytes or schizospherocytes
What are 2 clinical disorders that schizocytes indicate?
1. Malignant hypertension (Micro-angiopathic hemolytic anemia)

2. Heat injury or Incomplete phagocytosis
What are Dacrocytes?
2 more names?
Cells w/ one long pointy extremity.

Teardrop, caudate
What makes us see Dacrocytes on a blood smear?
just distortion of RBCs.
what 3 clinical disorders are indicated by presence of dacrocytes?
1. Myelofibrosis
2. Thallasemias
3. Megaloblastic anemia
What's a drepanocyte?
What's another name for it?
Sickle cells - contain polymers of HbS - can be bipolar spiculated, holly leaf, or boat-shaped.
What causes sickle cells?
aggregation of Hemoglobin S molecules.
what disease is indicated by derpanocytes?
Hemoglobin S disease.
what does basophilic stippling look like?
round, irregular blue granules

even distribution throughout cell
what cells have basophilic stippling?
what are granules in basophilic stippling made of?

why do they form?
abnormal aggregates of RNA

they form when there's a problem with putting Iron Fe into the Heme group.
What 3 diseases does basophilic stippling occur in?

What anemia do you know it's NOT if you see basoph. stippling?
1. Hemoglobinopathy
2. Sideroblastic anemia
3. Megaloblastic anemia

NOT iron deficiency
what does a Howell-jolly body look like?
a small round, purple thing, that is placed eccentrically in the cell.

only ONE
what 3 cells can howell jolly bodies be seen in?

what are they made of?
Retics - Basically anything.

-Made of DNA
are howell jolly bodies normal or abnormal?
normal - rna expulsion isn't complete or karyorrhexis
abnormal: chromosomes lag
when is it normal to see howell-jolly bodies?

when is it abnormal?
Normal: post-splenectomy

Abnormal: in megaloblastic anemia.
What are Cabot Rings?

What cells are they seen in?
A complete, incomplete, or twisted ring of microtubule.

Seen in erythroblasts and retics.
why do cabot rings form?
abnormal mitosis causes the microtubule to remain from the spindle.
what 2 diseases are cabot rings seen in?
-Megaloblastic anemia
What are pappenheim bodies?
-blue chunks of iron within micelles within mitochondria!

-Stain turqoise with Perl's Prussian blue
what cells are pappenheims seen in?
why do pappenheims form?
abnormal incorporation of iron into the heme group
2 things caused by faulty iron incorporation into heme:
-Basophilic stippling
-Pappenheim bodies
What 5 disorders are pappenheim bodies seen in?
-Sideroblastic anemia
-Hemolytic anemia
what is a reticulocyte?
immature RBC that contains RNA that precipitates with stain
what 2 types of stain are used for retics?
-New Methylene Blue

-Brilliant Cresyl Blue
Where are Retics seen?
Normally, in peripheral blood.
What are Siderocytes?

-What are they analogous to?
Cells single or multiple eccentric granules.

Analogous to pappenheimer bodies.
What stain is for siderocytes?
-Perl's Prussion blue - stains them turquoise.
What are siderocytes normally observed in?
Bone marrow - ferritin aggregates in siderosomes in developing cells.
What are Heinz bodies?
What are 2 reasons for their forming?
Blue-purple aggregates of globin chains due to:
-Heme-globin dissociation
-Hgb oxidation due to enzyme deficiency.
What enzyme deficiency causes Heinz bodies?
-G-6-PD; makes hemoglobin unstable.
What 2 stains are used for Heinz bodies?
-Cresyl violet
-Methyl violet after incubation w/ oxidizing agent.
What are Hgb H Inclusion bodies?

What causes them?

What stains them?
Excess in B-chains (globin chains) that get oxidized and precipitate to fine stippling.
-Alpha thallasemia
-Brilliant Cresyl Blue