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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

_______ provide policy makers and the public explanations so they can understand complex problems, substantiate and rationalize the policy positions and actions of various policy makers, and policymakers value their independent research and analysis as supplemental knowledge to convince other politicians and citizens to adopt their viewpoints.

Think Tanks

Think Tanks:

1. provide policymakers and the public explanations so they can understand complex problems

2. substantiate and rationalize the policy positions and actions of various policy makers

3. policymakers value their independent research and analysis as supplemental knowledge to convince other politicians and citizens to adopt their viewpoints

Which of the following combinations of saliency and conflict provide the greatest opportunity for an issue to be placed on the government's agenda?

high saliency; low confluct

_______ emphasizes the formal and legal aspects of government structure including the way governments are arranged, their legal powers, and their rules for decision making?

Institutional theory

Which of the following primary policy analysis criteria would be used if a fair and just evaluation were a concern?


Policymakers often debate over whether to address the root causes of a problem or instead focus on the problem's _______?

Proximate causes

Examining scholarly books and journals regarding a particular problem or solution represents the use of the _______ technique of collecting information.

Literature Review

Providing direct payments or benefits to individuals is an example of:


Food labels represent what form of government policy tool?


The _______ criterion for evaluating public policy deals most explicitly with achieving goals in relationship to costs.


The _______ is a measure that represents the average change in price over time of a market basket of consumer goods and services.


Median household incomes rose more for middle income Americans from 1983-2004 compared to upper income families.


The U.S. health care system is best characterized as a:

hybrid system of public and private care

Which government program provides medical insurance for the elderly and the disabled?


Some opponents of sex selection through PGD or MicoSort fear that reproductive medicine will eventually lead to designer babies.


According to the film, _______ causes many people to remain in poverty.

Generational poverty

The _______ was initially created to act as a central clearinghouse for all budget requests in 1921, advises the president on fiscal and economic policies, and is offset by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO).

Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that:

the public be allowed to review environmental impact statements (EIS)

Discretionary (non-entitlement) spending funds:

the national park system

On-line calculators help individuals to gauge the environmental impact of various activities from heating and lighting a home to flying across the country.


Heavily influenced by economics, _______ assumes that in making decisions, individuals have a fixed set of preferences and act instrumentally to maximize these preferences.

Rational Choice

The assigned research projects include a policy section with a policy overview and a research question and a literature review with _______ articles.

Scholarly peer reviewed

Among the three types of policy analysis are _______, professional and political.


At Copenhagen, while there was a significant disagreement between developing and developed countries, leaders from _______, India, Brazil, South Africa, and _______ created an accord vowing to limit global warming.

China and the United States

By the 1930s and 1940s, _______ became the dominant form of health coverage in the United States.

Employee-sponsored health plans

_______ refers to the institutional and political processes through which public policy choices are made.


_______ has been defined as the struggle over "who gets what, when, and how."


Advocates of ______ sought to limit the federal government as state and federal governments have separate and distinct jurisdictions and responsibilities.

Dual federalism

Defined as a voluntary associated of independent states or governments, _______ empowers lower-level governments posses all real authority.

A confederation

Throughout history, the Supreme Court has cycled through trends of state-centered and nation-centered philosophies of federalism. What is an example of a state-centered approach?

Scott v. Sanford (1857)

_______ is what a government chooses to do or not to do about problems.

Public policy

_______ is the process of choosing a state-centered view or a nation-centered view of federalism on the basis of political or partisan convenience.

None of the above (Cooperative, dual, centralized federalism)

*Ad hoc federalism*

The Constitution's single most extensive grand of power to Congress is:

the necessary and proper clause, often known as the elastic clause.

The foundations of government or the building blocks that all individuals and groups who ever sought to rule have been compelled to construct if they were to secure and maintain control over their territory and its people include the _______ and _______.

means of coercion, means of collecting revenue

Measures that earmark projects for individual members' congressional districts are often referred to as _______.

Pork barrels

Congress members promising to vote for another's bill in exchange for a vote for their bill:


American federalism in which of the following:

A two-tiered system comprised of the national government and the state governments

Every bill introduced in Congress faces the _______ deadline of the congressional term.


To overcome the collective action problem in Congress, MCs will logroll which is to:

give a colleague a vote on a particular bill in return for that colleague's vote on another bill

The _______ enabled party leadership to play a more significant role in lawmaking,

1974 House Reforms

_______ are statements of understanding between the administration and a foreign government that do not require the approval of the Senate.

Executive Agreements

The modern cabinet has limited political clout as opposed to the era of cabinet government during the 19th century.


Standing committees are called so because:

They exist from one Congress to the next, unless they are explicitly disbanded.

In the House, a _______ essentially provides a tailor made process for floor consideration of a bill governing the length of general debate and limiting the amount of amendments and the time for debate on each amendment.


The _______ consists of White House staff and other offices, such as the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) which assist the president in implementing public policy.

Executive Office of the President (EOP)

Conceptually, the general authority extended to Congress by the "necessary and proper" clause of the Constitution is similar to the power extended to the executive by the Constitution:

where it mandates that the president "take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed."

Going public otherwise known as plebiscitary politics was championed by the Framers.


Plebiscitary politics is also known as what?

Going public

With the election of 1800, the transfer of authority and power from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans signaled the strength of new Republic and of our constitutional principles.


In comparing the House and the Senate, Representatives tend to be subject _______ while Senators tend to be _______.

generalists, specialists

Representatives are _______.


Senators are _______.


The difference between insider lobbying (insider tactics) and outsider lobbying (outsider tactics) is:

insider lobbying is a direct appeal to a lawmaker; outsider lobbying is an appeal to the general public for support.

_______ is the procedure that gives more inhabitants of a population an equal probability of being selected.

Random Sampling

The difference between categorical grants and block grants is which of the following:

categorical grands are tied to particular programs, and the policy goals of block grants are more generally stated.

When one party controls the presidency and another party controls one or both houses of Congress, this is known as:

Divided government

An executive order has the force of law:

Until the president or successor retracts it, Congress nullifies it, or a federal court rules it unconstitution