• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


• Need

• Demand

• Supply

• Health needs assessment

• Healthcare need

• Felt need

• Expressed need

• Normative need

• Comparative need

• Ability to benefit from an intervention

• What people ask for

• What is provided

• Systematic method for reviewing the health issues facing a population, leading to agreed priorities and resource allocation that will improve health and reduce inequalities

• More specific need for a particular service that will provide a benefit for that individual

• Individuals perception of variation from normal health

• Individual seeks help to overcome variations in normal health

• Professional defines intervention appropriate for the expressed need

• Comparison between severity, range of interventions and cost

What are the 4 steps of needs assessment cycle?

Assessment -> Planning -> Implementation -> Evaluations

Describe the three public health approaches

• Epidemiological - Define problem size, services available, look at evidence base

• Comparative - Compare services received between groups

• Corporate - Ask population, commissioners, providers, patients, politicians

What are the 9 types of error?

• Sloth

• Fixation / loss of perspective

• Communication breakdown

• Playing the odds

• Bravado

• Lack of skill

• System error

• Ignorance

• Mis-triage

Why can errors occur?

• System failure

• Human factors

• Judgement failure

• Neglect

• Poor performance

• Misconduct

What 4 questions must be asked in cases of neglect?

What two principles also must be looked at?

• Was there a duty of care?

• Was there a breech in this duty of care?

• Did the patient come to harm?

• Was the hard due to the breach in care?

• Bolam - Would a group of reasonable doctors do the same in this situation?

• Bolitho - Would this be a reasonable thing for them to do?

What is a "never event"?

Serious, largely preventable patient safety incidence that should not occur if the available preventative measures have been implemented. Intolerable and inexcusable.


• Incidence

• Prevalence

• Sensitivity

• Specificity

• Positive predictive value

• Negative predictive value

• The number of new cases arising in a given population during a specific time period

• The number of existing cases in a population at a specific point in time

• The proportion of people that have a condition that test positive for that condition (A / A+B)

• The proportion of people that don't have a condition that tested negative for the condition (D / D+C)

• The probability that a person has a condition given a positive test result (A / A+C)

• The probability that a person does not have a condition given a negative test result (D / D+B)

How do you calculate:

• Relative risk

• Attributable/absolute risk

• Absolute risk reduction

• Number needed to treat

• Odds

• RR = risk exposed / risk unexposed

• AR = RE - RU

• ARR = RU - RE

• NNT = 1 / (RE - RU)

• Odds = cases / non-cases

What are the main types of errors in studies?

• Bias - selection or information

• Chance

• Confounding factors (a factor that is associated with both the exposure and the outcome but is not on the causality pathway between them)

• Reverse causality

What are the Bradford-Hill criteria for causality?

• Temporality - Exposure must have occurred before the outcome

• Dose response - increasing the exposure increases the severity / onset of the outcome

• Strength - High relative risk

• Reversibility - Removing / reducing exposure reduces the risk of the outcome

• Consistency - Study is reproducible

What are the WHO criteria for a screening programme?


• Important health problem

• Detectable latent / early phase

• Natural history of condition should be well known / understood


• Suitable method of detection

• Acceptable to the population


• Suitable treatment should be available

• Early intervention should be more effective


• Cost effective

• Agreed policy on who to treat

• On-going programme

• Lead time bias

• Length time bias

• Early detection gives false impression that survival is longer when actually has no impact on prognosis

• Screening is more likely to detect slow growing illnesses with better prognoses


• Health improvement

• Health protection

• Improving services

• Societal interventions aimed at preventing disease, promoting health and reducing inequality

• Measures to control infectious diseases and environmental hazards

• Organisation and delivery of safe, high quality services for prevention, treatment, and care


• Health behaviour

• Illness behaviour

• Sick-role behaviour

• A behaviour aimed at promoting health eg eating healthily

• Aimed at seeking a remedy to an existing illness (expressed need)

• A behaviour aimed at getting well eg taking medication

What are the theories of planned behaviour?

• Transtheoretical model (stages of change)

• Motivational interviewing

• Nudge therapy

What are the stages of change

Pre-contemplation ->contemplation -> preparation -> action -> maintenance -> graduation or relapse

What makes a disease a public health concern?

• High mortality

• High morbidity

• Highly infectious

• Expensive to treat

• Effective interventions are available

What are the steps of hierarchal need?


Self actualisation