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43 Cards in this Set

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How we find out about the world, make judgments about it, learn from it, and remember what we have learned.
Information Processing
The act of detecting external stimuli and converting those stimuli into nervous system activity.
Sensation
A mechanism that converts energy from one form to another.
Transducer
A process involving the selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli.
Perception
The minimum intensity of a stimulus needed to operate a sense organ
Sensory Threshold
The smallest difference between stimulus
attributes that can be detected.
Difference Threshold
A process that occurs when our sensory experience decreases with continued exposure to a stimulus.
Sensory Adaptation
The process in which visual receptors become more sensitive with time spent in the dark.
Dark Adaptation
Perceptual selection involves two factors, they are...
1. Stimulus Factors
2. Personal Factors
Stimulus Factors may be defined as...
Those characteristics that make some stimuli more compelling no matter who the perceiver is.
Personal Factors may be defined as...
Those characteristics of the perceiver that influence which stimuli get attended to or perceived.
The most important stimulus factor is ________.
Contrast
Contrast, in relation to stimulus factors, can be defined as...
The extent to which a stimulus is physically different from the other stimuli around it.
All else being equal, the more often a stimulus is presented the more likely we are to attend to it or perceive it. This is an example of the stimulus factor known as __________.
Repetition
Personal Factors that can influence perception can be categorized as...
1. Motivation
2. Expectation
3. Past Experience
When we are psychologically
predisposed, or expect to perceive
something, we have formed what?
A Mental Set
An attempt to organize, identify, and store stimuli in our memory based on information derived from our senses is an example of ...
Bottom-Up Processing
The process of selecting and perceiving stimuli based on what
the perceiver already knows is known as...
Top-Down Processing
In regard to perceptual organization, stimuli that are attended to and grouped together are...
Figures
In regard to perceptual organization, all the stimuli except those to which we are attending are
considered the ______.
Ground (or Background)
A basic principle of perceptual organization is...
Figure-Ground Relationships
Processing stimuli based on a Bottom-Up approach can be broken down into...
1. Proximity (or Contiquity)
2. Similarity
3. Continuity
4. Common Fate
5. Closure
Stimuli occurring close together in space and time are perceived as belonging together and part of the same figure is a principle known as
Proximity (or Contiquity)
The principle claiming that stimuli that are alike or share properties tend to group together in perception.
Similarity
The principle claiming that we tend to see things as ending up consistent with the way they started.
Continuity
The tendency to group together in the same figure those elements of a scene that appear to move together in the same direction and at the same speed.
Common Fate
With regard to perceptual organization according to the bottom-up approach, filling in the gaps in our perceptual world is known as...
Closure
A phenomenon that many psychologists believe to be a special case of closure is...
The perception of SUBJECTIVE CONTOURS. Which is...
A perception of an arrangement of lines and patterns that enable us to see figures that are not actually there.
Some visual examples of subjective contours
1. White triangle
2. Another white triangle
3. Square
One of the most important principles of Psychology as it affects our everyday lives and the central importance of perception in our everyday lives is...
What matters most to us is NOT what actually happened, but what we PERCEIVE to have happened.
The ability to judge depth and distance reflects that we are simultaneously responding to a large number of _____ to depth and distance.
Cues
Cues that involve both eyes are called...
Binocular cues
The cue to depth derived from the fact that each eye gets a different view of the same three dimensional
object.
Retinal Disparity
The observation that a perceiver's
eyes turn inward toward each other
when viewing something up close.
Convergence
The process of changing the shape of the lens by contraction and relaxation of the ciliary muscles to focus images on the retina.
Accommodation
The six most important physical cues (sometimes called pictorial cues) we get from the structure of our environment are...
1. Linear Perspective
2. Interposition
3. Relative Size
4. Texture Gradient
5. Patterns of Shading
6. Motion Parallax
The fact that portions of objects that are spatially further away from our eyes appear smaller than portions that are spatially nearer our eyes.
Linear Perspective
The fact that objects in the foreground (spatially closer) tend to obscure objects in the background (spatially further away)
Interposition
Since very few stimuli in the world change their size, objects that appear larger are judged to be close. Conversely, objects that appear to be small are further away.
Relative Size
The fact that detail is more readily distinguished at closer distances.
Textural Gradient
How objects create patterns of light and shadow.
Patterns of Shading
When viewed from a parallel perspective, at speed, objects farther away appear to be stationary or moving much slower than objects spatially nearer.
Motion Parallax
True or false: perception of depth and distance is NOT susceptible to cultural constraints.
False