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53 Cards in this Set

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Maintenance Rehearsal
Repeating information over and over to maintain it in short-term memory
Short-term Memory
Second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory (LTM); capacity is limited to five to nine items and duration is about 30 seconds
Episodic Memory
Subsystem of explicit/declarative memory that stores memories of personally experienced events; a mental diary of a person's life
Examples: your high school graduation, the birth of your first child
Crystallized intelligence
Knowledge and skills gained through experience and education that tend to increase over the life span
Fluid intelligence
Aspects of innate intelligence, including reasoning abilities, memory, and speed of information processing, that are relatively independent of education and tend to decline as people age
Mental Set
Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past rather than trying new ones
Mental Image
Mental representation of a previously stored sensory experience, including visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, motor, or gustatory imagery (e.g., visualizing a train and hearing its horn)
Availability Heuristic
Judging the likelihood or probability of an event based on how readily available other instances of the event are in memory
Representativeness Heuristic
Estimating the probability of something based of how well the circumstances match (or represent) our previous prototype
Divergent thinking
Thinking that produces many alternatives from a single starting point; a major element of creativity (e.g., finding as many uses as possible for a paper clip)
Convergent Thinking
Narrowing down alternatives to converge on a single correct answer (e.g., standard academic tests generally require convergent thinking)
Embryonic Period
Second stage of prenatal development, which begins after uterine implantation and lasts through the eighth week
Developmental Psychology
Study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death
Ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats.

Factors to becoming resilient can be those who are raised in violent, impoverished, or neglectful situations. Even some who are raised by woderful, loving parents can have serious problems.
Temperament Styles
Temperament is an individuals innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response. There are 3 styles: Easy, Difficult, and Slow-to-warm-up.
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP)
As the name implies, instead of recognizing patterns as a sequencce of information bits, our brain and memory processes perform multiple parallel operations all at one time.

Example: your at the ocen and see a large fin nearby, you don't think about all the other fish it could be. You instantly think of it as a shark and run possibly saving yourself from being eaten.
Purpose of Long-Term Memory
The purpose of the third stage, long-term memory (LTM), is to serve as a storehouse for information that must be kept for long periods of time.
Selective Attention vs. Divided attention
Selective attention directs our attention to things we consider important. Note that selective attention improves encoding, divided attention interferes with it.
Steps in memory processing
Step one: Encoding- processing information into the memory system
Step two: Storage- retaining information over time
Step three: Retrieval- recovering information from memory storage
Phonological Loop
Rehearses though speech, words, numbers.
State-dependent memory
If you learn something while under the influence of a drug, such as caffeine, you will remember it more easily when you take that drug again than at other times.
Three ways we learn new concepts?
Artificial concepts- formed by logical, specific rules

Natural concepts/prototypes- formed by everyday life experiences

Hierarchies- group concepts into subcategories within broader categories
What are the three steps to problem solving?
Step 1: Preparation (identifying, separating, and defining the ultimate goal)

Step 2: Production (generating possible solutions, called hypotheses, by using algorithms and/or heuristics

Step 3: Evaluation (judging hypotheses in Step 2 against the criteria in Step 1)
Criteria for mental retardation
They have to have an IQ of 70 and below
vowel-like sounds infants produce beginning around 2 to 3 months of age ("ooooh" "aaaah")
Vowel/consonant combinations that infants begin to produce at about 4 to 6 months of age ("bahbahbah" "dahdahdah")
Human language vs. nonhuman animal language
Human language is a form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to a set of specified rules.

Nonhuman animal language is less complex, less creative, and has fewer rules than any language used by humans
Sternberg's Triarchic (three-part) theory of successful intelligence
According to Robert Sternberg's model, there are three separate and different aspects of intelligence. Each of these components is learned, not the result of genetics. Therefore, each can be strengthened or improved

Analytical Intelligence- Good at analysis, evaluation, judgement, and comparison skills
Creative Intelligence- Good at invention, coping with novelty, and imagination skills
Practical Intelligence- Good at application, implementation, execution, and utilization skills
Primary Aging
Gradual, inevitable changes versus age changes due to disease, disuse, or neglect
What are the four stages in Piaget's Cognitive Development model?
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
Sensorimotor (Birth - 2 years)
Abilities: uses senses and motor skills to explore and develop cognitively
Limits: beginning of stage lacks object permanence (understanding things continue to exist even when not seen, heard, or felt)
Peroperational (2-7 years)
Abilities: has significant language and thinks symbolically
Limits: cannot perform "operations", Egocentric thinking (inability to consider another's point of view), Animistic thinking (believing all things are living)
Concrete Operational (7-11 years)
Abilities: can perform "operations" on concrete objects, understands conversation (relizing changes in shape or appearance can be reversed)
Limits: cannot think abstractly and hypothetically
Formal Operational (11 and up years)
Abilities: can think abstractly and hypothetically
Limits: adolescent egocentrism at the beginning of this stage, with related problems of the personal fable and imaginary audience
Attachment styles
Securely attached: Child stays close to mother, shows moderate distress when separated, & is happy when mother returns
Avoidant: Child treats mother & stranger the same & rarely cries when mother leaves
Anxious/Ambivalent: Child is upset when mother leaves. When mother returns, child seeks closeness, but also squirms away
Parenting Styles
-Permissive-Neglectful: Few limits or control (Lo C), little warmth or responsiveness (Lo W)
-Permissive-Indulgent: Few limits or control (Lo C), high warmth & responsiveness (Hi W)

Authoritarian: Highly controlling (Hi C), little warmth or responsiveness (Lo W)

Authoritative: Set & enforce firm limits (Hi C), high warmth or responsiveness (Hi W)
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Complex physical changes in puberty primarily result from hormones secreted from the ovaries and testes, the pituitary gland in the brain, and adrenal glands near the kidneys

Females: Underarm hair growth, Breast development, enlargement of uterus, beginning of menstruation, pubic hair growth

Males: Facial and underarm hair growth, Larynx enlargement, pubic hair growth, growth of penis and testes, and beginning of ejaculation
Secondary Aging
Aging and deaths resulting from disease, abuse, or neglect
Ainsworth's Research
Ainsworth found that infants with a secure attachment style have caregivers who are sensitive and responsive to their signals of distress, happiness, and fatigue
Interactionist approach
More recently, the interactionist position has evolved into the biopsychosocial model. In this model, biological factors, psychological influences, and social forces all affect and are affected by one another.
Stages of Moral Development
Preconventional Level (Birth to adolescence)
-Stage 1: Punishment-obedience orientation. Morality is what you can get away with.
-Stage 2: Instrumental-exchange orientation. Obeys rules to obtain rewards or favors

Conventional Morality (Adolescence and young adulthood)
-Stage 3: Good-child orientation. Obeys rules to get approval.
-Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation. Obeys laws because they maintain the social order.

Postconventional Morality (Adulthood)
-Stage 5: Social-contract orientation. Moral reasoning reflects belief in democratically established laws.
-Stage 6: Universal-ethics orientation. Moral reasoning reflects individual conscience.
Gilligan's criticisms of moral stages
Researcher Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg's model because on his scale women often tend to be classified at a lower level of moral reasoning than men. Gilligan suggested that this difference occurred because Kohlberg's theory emphasizes values more often held by men, such as rationality and independence, while deemphasizing common female values, such as concern for others and belonging
Erikson's Stage 1
Trust versus mistrust (birth-age 1)
-Infants learn to trust that their needs will be met, especially by the mother; if not, mistrust develops
Erikson's Stage 2
Autonomy versus shame and doubt (ages 1-3)
-Toddlers learn to exercise will, make choices, and control themselves. Caregiver's patience and encouragement help foster a sense of autonomy versus shame and doubt
Erikson's Stage 3
Initiative versus guilt (ages 3-6)
-Preschoolers learn to initiate activities and enjoy their accomplishments. Supportive caregivers promote feelings of power and self-confidence versus guilt
Erikson's Stage 4
Industry versus inferiority (ages 6-12)
-Elementary school-aged children develop a sense of industry and learn productive skills that their culture requires (such as reading, writing, and counting); if not, they feel inferior
Erikson's Stage 5
Identity versus role confusion (adolescence)
-During a period of serious soul-searching, adolescents develop a coherent sense of self and their role in society. Failure to resolve this identity crisis may lead to an unstable identity, delinquency, and difficulty in personal relationships in later life
Erikson's Stage 6
Intimacy versus isolation (early adulthood)
-After learning who they are and how to be independent, yound adults from intimate connections with others; if not, they face isolation and consequent self-absorption
Erikson's Stage 7
Generativity versus stagnation (middle adulthood)
-Middle-aged adults develop concern for establishing and influencing the next generation. If this expansion and effort do not occur, and individual stagnates and is concerned solely with material possessions and personal well-being
Erikson's Stage 8
Ego integrity versus despair (late adulthood)
-Older people enter a period of reflection; in which they feel a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction with the lives they've lifed. If not, they experience regret and despair that their lives cannot be relived
Factors in child adjustment after divorce
Whether children become "winners" or "losers" in a divorce depends on the (1) individual attributes of the child, (2) qualities of the custodial family, (3) continued involvement with noncustodial parents, and (4) resources and support systems available to the child and parents
Kubler-Ross Stages & Characteristics
Denial of the terminal condition ("This can't be true, it's a mistake!")

Anger ("Why me? It isn't fair!")

Bargaining ("God, if you let me live, I'll dedicate my life to you!")

Depression ("I'm losing everyone and everything I hold dear")

Acceptance ("I know that death is inevitable and my time is near")
The accumulation of fatty tissue coating the axons of nerve cells, continues until early adulthood.