• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an organized set of concepts that explains a phenomenon or set of phenomena.
the idea that all events - physical, mental, and behavioral - are the result of, or determined by, specific causal factors.
patterns that can be discovered and revealed through research
lawful patterns of relationships
a tentative and testable statement about the relationship between causes and consequences.
a general set of procedures for gathering and interpreting evidence in ways that limit sources of errors and yield dependable conclusions
scientific method
other researchers must have the opportunity to inspect, criticize, replicate, or disprove the data and methods
public verifiability
a set of uniform procedures for treathing each participant in a test, interview, or experiment, or for recording data
a definition of a varible or condition in terms of the specific operation or procedure used to determine its presence
operational definition
in an experimental seting, a factor that varies in amount and kind
in an experimental setting, a variable that the researcher manipulates with the expectation of having an impact on values of the dependent variable
independent variable
in an experimental setting, a variable that he researcher measures to assess the impact of a variation in an independent variable
dependent variable
research methodology that involves the manipulation of independent vaariables to determine their effects on the dependent variables
experimental method
a stimulus other than the variable an experimenter explicity introduces into a research setting that affects a participant's behavior.
confounding variable
result that occurs when a researcher or observer subtly communicates to participants the kind of behavior he or she expects to find, thereby creating that expected reaction
expectancy effects
a change in behavior in the absence of an experimental manipulation
placebo effect
an experimental technique in which biased expectations of experimenters are eliminated by keeping both participants and experimental assistants unaware of which participants have received which treatment
double-blind control
consistent procedure for giving instructions, scoring responses, and holding all other variables constant except those being systematically varied.
control procedure
an experimental condition on which treatment is not administered; it is used in cases where a placebo effect might occur
placebo control
a research design in which different groups of participants are randomly assigned to exerimental conditions or to control conditions.
between-subjects design
a procedure by which participants have an equal likelihood of being assigned to any condition within an experiment
random assignment
a group in an experiment that is exposed to a treatment or experiences a manipulation of the independent variable
experimental group
a group in an experiment that is not exposed to a treatment or does not experience a manipulation of the independent variable
control group
a subset of a population selected as participants in an experiment
a subset of a population that closely matches the overall characteristics of the population with respect to the distribution of males and females, racial and ethnic groups, and so on.
representative sample
a procedure that ensures that every member of a population has an equal likelihood of participating in an experiment
random sampling
a research design that uses each participant as his or her own control; for example, the behavior of an experimental participant before receiving treatment might be compared to his or her behavior after receiving treatment
within-subjects design
Research methodology that determines to what extent two variables, traits, or attributes are related
correlational method
a statistic that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables
correlation coefficient
the degree to which a test produces similar cores each time it is used; stability or consistency of the scores produced by an instument
the extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure
a self behavior that is identified through a participants own observations and reports
self report measure
overt actions or reaction that is observed and recorded, exclusive of self reported behavior
behavioral measure
a research technique in which unobtrusive observations are made of behaviors that occur in natural environments
naturalistic observation
intensive observation of a particular individual or small group of individuals
case study
the process through which individuals are informed about experimental procedures, risks, and benefits before they provide formal consent to become research participants
informed consent
a proceddure conducted at the end of an experiment in which the researcher provides the participant with as much information about the study as possible and makes sure that no participant leaves feeling confused, upset, or embarrassed