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125 Cards in this Set

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circadian rhythm
cyclical changes that occur on a 24-hour basis; disrupted by jet lag, graveyard work shifts
biological clock
located in SCN in hypothalamus
loss of 1 night of sleep
edgy, irritable, low concentration
multiple nights of sleep lost
depression, difficulty learning new info
more than 4 nights of sleep lost
brief hallucination
other consequences of sleep loss
weight gain, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart problems, weakened immune system
Stage 1 of Sleep (non-REM)
a. Brain powers down by 50% or more, produces waves 4-7 times/second (theta waves)
b. Experience Hypnagogic imagery and hypnic myclonia
c. 5-10 minutes
Stage 2 of sleep (non-REM)
heart rate slows, body temp decreases, muscles relax, eye movements cease; we see sleep spindles and k-complexes; 10-30 minutes
Stage 3/4 of sleep (non-REM)
Deep sleep, delta waves occur in 1 or 2 times/second; 15-30 minutes
Stage 5 paradoxical or REM sleep
Follows stage 3/4 and short return to 2; brain is most active and dreaming, increased heart rate and blood pressure, rapid/irregular breathing, release of acetylcholine, 10-20 minutes; body is paralyzed
insomnia causes
a. depression, pain, med conditions
b. stress, rel'n probs, jet lag, caffeine
c. Restless leg syndrome
insomnia treatments
psychotherapy, sleeping pills
narcolepsy
plummet into REP sleep, may experience cataplexy, may be caused by lack of brain cells that produce orexin
narcolepsy treatment
short naps, antidepressant/stimulant meds, avoiding alcohol/caffeine
dream protection theory
dreams are protectors of sleep; to repress sexual and aggressive tendencies the dream-work transforms them into symbols (dreams)
manifest content
details of dream itself
latent content
true, hidden meaning
activation-synthesis theory
1. Pons transmit random signals to thalamus, which relays info to forebrain
2. Forebrain attempts to create story to fit together incomplete info it receives
role of forebrain
decreased activity in logical centers of forebrain allow hallucinatory images from emotional centers to run wild
neurocognitive perspective
1. Content of dreams is driven in part by cognitive development
2. Dreams are more consistent than what would be expected if they were only driven by random neural impulses
causes of deja vu
1. small seizures in right temporal lobe
2. dual processing theory- when input from separate neural pathways that process sensory info is out of sync
Hypnosis Myth 1: Hypnosis is trance state where amazing things happen
Truth: people who are more suggestible are selected by hypnotist while still awake
Hypnosis Myth 2: Hypnotic Phenomena are Unique
Truth- people can experience many hypnotic phenomena without being hypnotized
Myth 3: Hypnosis is a sleep-like state
Hypnosis is not related to sleep, Brain waves are not the same
Myth 4: Hypnotized people are unaware of surroundings
People can hear phone conversations in same room
Myth 5: Hypnotized people forget what happened during hypnosis
Spontaneous amnesia is rare and occurs mainly among those who expect it
Myth 6: Hypnosis improves memory
Produces more inaccurate than accurate memories, increases confidence in inaccurate eyewitness testimony
socio-cognitive theory
a. People's attitudes about hypnosis shape their response
b. Those told they can resist hypnosis are more able to do so
c. People can be trained to be more suggestible under hypnosis
Dissociation theory
Based on a separation of personal functions that are normally well integrated, based on metaphor of hidden observer (unhypnotized part of mind that can be accessed on cue)
social psychology
study of how people influence others' behavior, beliefs, and attitudes for good and bad
social facilitation
enhancement of performance brought about by presence of others
Social disruption
worsening of behavior in presence of others
attribution
process of assigning causes to behavior
fundamental attribution error
tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people's behavior
social comparison theory
theory that we seek to evaluate our beliefs, attitudes, and abilities by comparing our reactions with others'
deindividualization
tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when stripped of usual identities
groupthink
emphasis on group unanimity at expense of critical thinking and sound decision making
groupthink treatment
encourage active dissent, having a devils advocate, having independent experts o hand, holding follow-up meetings
group polarization
tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members
innoculation theory
approach to resisting persuasive appeal by first introducing reasons why perspective might be correct then debunking it
pluralistic ignorance
error of assuming no one in a group perceives things as we do (we're the only one who thinks the situation might be an emergency)
cognitive dissonance
unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from 2 conflicting thoughts/beliefs
peripheral route
leads us to respond to persuasive arguments on basis of snap judgments
central route
leads us to evaluate merits of persuasive arguments carefully and thoughtfully
explicit stereotypes
beliefs about characteristics of an out-group , which we're aware
implicit stereotypes
beliefs about characteristics of an out-group, which we're consciously unaware
adaptive conservatism
evolutionary principle that creates predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different
just-world hypothesis
claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason
Robbers Cave Study
cooperation toward a shared goal produced a dramatic decrease in hostility between 2 groups
Nomothetic
approach to personality that focuses on identifying general laws that govern behavior of all individuals
idiographic
approach to personality that focuses on identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person
psychic determinism
assumption that all psychological events have a cause
assumptions of psychoanalytic theory
psychic determinism, symbolic meaning, unconscious motivation
conscious mind
contact with outside world
preconscious mind
material just beneath the surface of awareness
unconscious mind
difficult to retrieve material, well below the surface of awareness, all psychic energy originates in unconscious
id
reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression- ruled by pleasure principle
superego
our sense of morality
ego
psyche's executive and principal decision maker - operates on reality principle
repression
motivated forgetting of emotionally threatening memories or impulses
rationalization
providing a reasonable-sounding explanation for unreasonable behaviors or failures
displacement
directing an impulse from a socially acceptable target onto a safer and more socially acceptable target
oral stage
12-18 mos- focuses on mouth; fixation causes dependance on others for reassurance
anal stage
18 mos-3 yrs- focuses on toilet training, fixation- prone to neatness, stinginess, and stubbornness in adulthood
phallic stage
3-6 yrs- focuses on genitals
latency stage
7-11- sexual impulses are submerged into unconscious
genital stage
adolescence- sexual impulses awaken and begin to mature into romantic attraction toward others
adler's striving for superiority
those with inferiority complexes are prone to attempt to demonstrate their superiority at all costs
Jung's Analytic Psychology
Collective unconscious- explains similarities across people in their emotional reactions to many features of the world
Karen Horney
women's sense of inferiority stems not from their anatomy, but from their excessive dependency on men- arises when opposite-sex parent is overly protective and same-sex parent is overly critical
object relations theorists
followers of Freud who emphasized children's mental representations of others
behavioral views on personality development
view personality as under the control of genetic factors and contingencies in the environment
social learning views on personality development
believe behaviorists have gone too far- the way we think about our environment plays an important role
locus of control
extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside their control
self-actualization
drive to develop our innate potential to the fullest possible extent
Roger's Self-Theory
our personalities consist of 3 major components- organism, self, and conditions of worth
conditions of worth
expectations we place on ourself for appropriate and inappropriate behavior
criticisms of humanistic approach
theories hard to test, may be too optimistic, not enough attention paid to inherited characteristic, learning, and unconscious processes
trait perspective
focuses on describing individual differences, personality seen as combo of characteristics people display over time and across situations
The "Big Five" (OCEAN)
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
openness
tend to be intellectually curious and unconventional
conscientiousness
careful and responsible
extraversion
social and lively
agreeableness
friendly and easy to get along with
neuroticism
tense and moody
people from individualistic cultures
tend to focus on themselves and personal goals
people from collectivistic cultures
tend to focus on their relations with others
projective personality tests
consist of ambiguous stimuli that examinees must interpret or make sense of
Ataque de Nervios
Latin America- symptoms of uncontrollable shouting, crying attacks, trembling, heat in chest rising to head, verbal/physical aggression
Koro
several Asian countries- believe their penis and testicles are disappearing and receding into their abdomen
panic attack
brief, intense episodes of extreme fear characterized by sweating, dizziness, light-headedness, racing heartbeat, and feelings of impending death/going crazy- most prevalent of mental disorders
panic disorder
repeated and unexpected panic attacks with either persistent concerns about future attacks or a change in personal behavior in an attempt to avoid them
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability across many areas of life functioning
agoraphobia
fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or embarrassing, or in which help is unavailable in event of a panic attack
social phobia
marked fear of public appearance in which embarrassment or humiliation is possible
major depressive episode
stage in which a person experiences a lingering depressed mood or diminished interest in pleasurable activities, along with symptoms that include weight loss
bipolar disorder
condition marked by a history of at least 1 manic episode
manic episodes
experience marked by elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated-self esteem, increased talkativeness, irresponsible behavior
dissociative experience
conditions involving disruptions in consciousness, memory, identity, or perception
depersonalization disorder
condition marked by multiple episodes of depersonalization
dissociative amnesia
inability to recall important personal information-most often related to a stressful experience; can't be explained by ordinary forgetfulness
dissociative fugue
sudden, unexpected travel away from home or the workplace, accompanied by amnesia or significant life events
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
condition characterized by presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of the person's behavior
schizophrenia
severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality
Diathesis-Stress Model
perspective proposing that mental disorders are a joint product of a genetic vulnerability, called a diathesis, and stressors that trigger this vulnerability
psychoanalysis goal
make the unconscious conscious- first form of psychotherapy
free association
technique in which patients express themselves without censorship of any sort
interpretation
therapists formulate explanations of the unconscious bases of a patient's dreams, emotions, and behaviors
Dream analysis
therapist's task is to interpret the relation of the dream to the patient's daytime experience and the dream's symbolic significance
resistance
attempts to avoid confrontation and anxiety associated with uncovering previously repressed thoughts, emotions, and impulses
transference
projecting intense,unrealistic feelings and expectations from the past onto the therapist
working through
to confront and resolve problems, conflicts, and ineffective coping responses in everyday life
object relations therapists
emphasize patients' mental representations of themselves and others and focus on patient's difficulties with trust, attachment, separation, and identity formation
interpersonal therapy
treatment that strengthens social skills and targets interpersonal problems, conflicts, and life transitions
person-centered therapy
therapy centering on the patient's goals and ways of solving problems
motivational interviewing
person-centered interviewing techniques, including warmth, empathy, reflective listening, unconditional acceptance, and avoiding confrontation
behavior therapy
focus on the specific behaviors that lead the patient to seek therapy and the current variables that maintain problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
systematic desensitization
patients are taught to relax as they are gradually exposed to what they fear in a stepwise manner
flooding
jump right to the top of the anxiety hierarchy and expose patients to images of the stimuli they fear the most for prolonged periods
response prevention
technique in which therapists prevent patients from performing their typical avoidance behaviors
rational emotive behavior therapy
emphasis on changing how we think and focuses on changing how we act
empirically supported treatments
treatment for specific disorders that are backed by high-quality scientific evidence
pharmacotherapy
use of medications to treat psychological problems
electroconvulsive therapy ECT
patients receive brief electrical pulses to the brain that produce a seizure to treat serious psychological problems
psychosurgery
brain surgery to treat psychological problems