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216 Cards in this Set

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Define Inhalants
substances that are inhaled but do not need to be burned or heated to volatize.
T/F A young person's first illicit drug use is likely to be an opiate.
False. It's likely to be an inhalant
Lifetime use of an inhalant among all Canadians age 15 or older is estimated at about ___%
High School drug use of inhalants was reported at ___%
T/F Highest use of inhalants was by students in grade 12.
False. Highest use of inhalants by students was the younger grades, 7 & 8...
What is ether's nickname?
"Sweet Vitriol"
Who was ether discovered by, and when?
Raymundus Lullius in 1275.
What is ether made of? (Two ingredients)
Alcohol and sulphuric acid distilled together.
What is a term for recreational use of ether, how far back is use of it dated?
"Ether frolics" the 1700's.
What are Hoffman's Drops?
A 'medical' form of ether, 3 parts alcohol: 1 part ether.
T/F often ether was used to replace alcohol when alcohol was in short supply.
What drug is similar, but more potent than ether and was developed after it?
What is the street name of nitrous oxide, who discovered it and when...
"Laughing gas" or "Hippy crack" discovered by SIr Joseph Priestly in 1776.
What are 'whippets'?
Commercially available nitrous oxide canisters, for use in restaurant whip cream dispensers.
Which of the following is not a potential danger of nitrous oxide abuse?
1. hypoxia
2. cold turkey effect
3. permanent nerve damage
4. physical dependence
2. cold turkey effect
T/F the opiate system is involved in nitrous oxide withdrawal.
False, it does not appear to be.
T/F gasoline containing substances seem to have the highest abuse potential among solvents.
F *Toluene containing substances...
Solvent abuse is highly correlated with what disorder?
Antisocial personality disorder.
...Solvent users typically have a very dissimilar social and emotional profile from users of the other types of inhalants.
Define huffing & bagging...
Huffing: involves soaking a cloth with the substance and then inhaling it through the mouth.
Bagging: spraying the substance into a plastic bag and then inhaling with the bag over the nose and mouth.
T/F the psychoactive ingredients in all solvents have low lipid solubility.
False. They are highly lipid soluble. They go in and out of the CNS very fast.
T/F Toluene is involved in the dopaminergic system.
T/F Toluene does not support a conditioned place preference.
False. Toluene does support conditioned place preference.
T/F the effects of solvents lasts about 5 minutes.
False, about one hour.
T/F users of solvents routinely expose themselves to levels that are more than 100 times the maximum allowable limit for industrial use.
False. 50 times...
What's a good two word summary description of solvent effects?
'A quick drunk'
T/F Many of the deaths associated with solvent use are due to accidents that result from disorientation and loss of muscular coordination.
Are tolerance and physical dependence symptoms of solvent abuse?
Not in humans , but they can be readily produced in animals.
T/F In a comparison of solvent abusers and chronic cocaine abusers, the impaired cognitive functioning was worse in cocaine users.
False, it was worse in chronic solvent abusers.
T/F There is evidence of fetal solvent syndrome in children of solvent abusers.
What chemical can be described as 'yellow, volatile, flammable liquids with a fruity odor?'
Nitrites !
T/F Amyl nitrite is used by prescription for treatment of angina pain and as an antidote to cyanide poisoning.
True , they are vasodilators.
T/F use of nitrites reduces sexual arousal.
False, it is sold in sex shops and highly associated with sex involving homosexual males.
Name a couple of nitrite nicknames !
Climax, cum, aroma of Man, Heart on , Jac Aroma, Locker Room, Thrust, Toilet Water!
T/F "Poppers" is a nickname often used for nitrites.
True, in medical form they come in glass ampules that make a popping sound when broken to gain access.
How long do nitrites last, and with what effects?
Onset: 30 seconds, Lasts: 5 minutes, euphoria, increase in libido, penile engorgement, sphincter dilation, delayed ejacultaion, headache, flushing, nausea, vomiting...
T/F Nitrites are consumed orally.
False, by inhalation.
T/F Approx. 20% of males and 10% of females in highschool use steroids.
False, 6% males 2% females
T/F cholesterol is the main building block of steroids.
T/F progesterone is a steroid normally released by the adrenal glands in response to stress.
False, cortisol.
T/F cortisol refers to the type of steroids that are regularly abused.
False, anabolic-androgenic steroids, (AAS).
When were anabolic androgenic steroids first developed and what is considered their ' unofficial start ' in athletes?
The 1930's and 1954 by Soviet Union weight lifters.
What does 'Anabolic' and 'Androgenic' refer to in AAS?
Anabolic: the capacity of steroids to promote muscle growth.
Androgenic: the masculinizing effects of steroids.
What medical uses do AAS have?
Treatment of delayed puberty, impotence, wasting diseases like HIV/Aids.
T/F A typical medical dose of steroids is about 500 mg a week, while a steroid abuser may take an excess of 5 grams.
False, 100 mg, 1 gram.
T/F use of steroids in adolescents results in excess vertical growth (they become taller than they would normally.)
False, their stature is stunted.
T/F Anabolic steroids lower good cholesterol (HDL) and raise bad cholesterol (LDL)
Where does Ma huang come from and what does it look like.
A leafless desert shrub known as the 'horsetail plant', ma: pungent, huang: yellow.
T/F use of ma huang has been documented as far back as 5100 years ago.
T/F the main active ingredient in ma huang is sympathomimetic ephedrine, and it is used for nasal decongestion.
T/F ephedrine is often diverted by the large scale purchase of nasal decongestant pills to produce cocaine.
False, it is used to produce methamphetamine.
T/F Khat is a drug that comes from China and dates back to the 1300's.
False, it comes from Africa
T/F Khat is consumed by chewing of the leaves or brewing it into a tea.
What is the active ingredient in Khat?
T/F Khat produces clear psychological and physical dependence.
False, psychological dependence is apparent but there isn't clear evidence for physical dependence.
T/F Khat is legal in Canada.
False, it's legal in the UK but not here.
T/F animals will self administer methcathinone.
True, this is consistent with the fact that it causes release of dopamine in the VTA, producing a euphoric effect.
T/F chronic use of 'cat' results in destruction of dopaminergic neurons.
Where is the coca plant indigenous?
Central and South America.
Who isolated cocaine, and in what year?
1859 by Albert Niemann.
Sigmund Freud was known for his strong support of nitrites.
False, cocaine.
What was Vin Mariani?
A french wine with about 7 mg of cocaine per ounce.
T/F cocaine was banned in 1911.
T/F cocaine remained in coca cola until the 1930's
False, decocainized coca leaves began to be used in 1906.
T/F cocaine began its resurgence in the 90's
False, 1950's peaking as stimulant of choice in the 70's and 80's .
T/F crack appeared in the mid 1980's.
T/F it takes about 40 pounds of coca leaves to make 1 pound of cocaine.
False 400:1
T/F cocaine is referred to as the "Cadillac of drugs"
How is crack derived from cocaine hydrochloride?
By treating it with an alkaline solution like water and baking soda.
What two main reasons make crack a very popular form of cocaine.
1. It can be smoked, producing very rapid and intense effects.
2. It can be marketed in very affordable quantities (sold as rocks).
T/F the euphoria produced by crack lasts about an hour.
False. 10 - 20 minutes.
T/F crack gets it's name from the fissures seen in crack rocks.
False, it gets its name from the popping noise it makes when smoked.
T/F Lifetime use of cocaine is about 15% in Canadians that are 15 years or older.
False, about 10%
T/F Past year use of cocaine is reported to be about 2% in Canadians age 15 +.
Canadian Uni students reported lifetime use at ___% and past year use at ___%.
7% and 2%
When was amphetamine first synthesized?
When was amphetamine first synthesized?
When was methamphetamine first synthesized?
What is the active ingredient in Benzedrine.
When was dexedrine developed, and what for?
1937 for ADHD, and weight reduction.
What factors caused amphetmaines to appear at 'just the right time.'
Cocaine popularity was dramatically declining, prohibition was occurring and it was cheap and readily available in the 20's.
T/F Early reports of amphetamine psychosis appeared as a result of the huge surplus of amphetamines in Japan following world war II.
T/F Governments began to crack down on amphetamine use and distribution heavily between 1935 and 1960.
False high levels of abuse drew little attention from Governments during this time.
T/F Amphetamine was listed in the controlled substances act in 1937.
False, 1971
T/F an upsurge in amphetamine injection occurred in San Francisco in the early 60's because doctor's began to prescribe it as a treatment for heroin addiction.
What is a "speedball"?
A mix of heroin and amphetamine.
What term was coined to describe individuals displaying psychotic behavior and aggression as a result of chronic amphetamine use?
"Speed freaks"
T/F In the 70's amphetamine use declined and was replaced by the return of the "white goddess" cocaine...
What are the nicknames for methamphetamines that are...
1. Injected
2. Smoked
3. Used in the male homosexual community.
1. Crank
2. Ice
3. Tina
T/F It is anticipated that use of amphetamines will decline in coming years.
False, use is predicted to rise, particularly in poorer countries because of the ease of production and cheap cost.
According to the W.H.O. ______ individuals abuse meth/amphetamines, ______ abuse cocaine.
Meth: 35 million, Cocaine: 15 million
T/F Lifetime use of amphetamines in Canada is estimated at 10%, Past year use at 5%
T/F cocaine is still considered a medical drug.
True, it has local anesthetic effects and produces profound vasoconstriction, (control of bleeding).
What is the 1/2 life of cocaine, and amphetamines?
Cocaine: 40 minute 1/2 life
Amphetamines: 8 hour 1/2 life.
Both of these produce a noticeable decline in effects about halfway through the halflife.
T/F stimulants activate the sympathetic nervous system producing the 'fight or flight' reaction.
List the physiological symptoms of fight or flight...
Increased; HR, body temp, blood pressure, respiratory rate, sweating, vasoconstriction, bronchodilation, and pupil dilation.
What metabolite does the breakdown of cocaine produce when alcohol is also present.
T/F cocaethylene causes an approx. 10 fold increase in the risk of immediate death from simultaneous consumption of alcohol and cocaine.
False 25 fold.
T/F cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine.
True, this is why it produces euphoria.
T/F Cocaethylene has a weaker euphorigenic effect than cocaine.
False, it produces a higher level of pleasure.
T/F stimulants produce increased athletic performance.
False, these effects are small and elusive.
T/F stimulant use increases libido and sexuality.
Define briefly:
Slow Patterned,
Fast Patterned,
In place restricted,
and Dyskinetic
Hyperactive: a noticeable increase in motor behavior characterized by running and rapid, jerky changes in position.
Slow Patterned: pace of movement slows, a discernable pattern is shown such as moving around the perimeter of the box.
Fast Patterned: pace increases, pattern is still seen in movements but there are sudden stops and starts
In Place Restricted: patterned behavior is broken up by prolonged periods of remaining in one place and making repetitive movements with the head, legs or entire body, "stereotypies".
Diskinetic: convulsive-retropulsion, jumping in place, possibly death.

** these are all related to the dopaminergic activity, involving release and blocking of reuptake of dopamine by stimulants.
T/F the LD 50 of cocaine seems to be about 100 x the recreational dose.
False, about 10x.
1 - 2 grams ingested, 700 -800 mg by injection of cocaine.
T/F stimulants were orignally developed for use treating depression, obesity, narcolepsy and breathing disorders.
Up to _% of children below age seven are thought to have ADD.
What are the two general clusters of symptoms of ADD.
Inattentiveness or inability to focus attention
& hyperactivity, impulsiveness and acting out.
T/F Benzedrine was the first drug used accidently in the treatment of ADD.
T/F Ritalin and Concerta are Methylphenidate stimulants,
T/F Dexedrine, Adderall and Daytrana are amphetamines.
False, Daytrana is a methylphidate
T/F Stimulants have shown shown to be effective in treating ADD in about 50% of cases.
False, 80%
T/F Estimates of prevalence of Stimulant abuse for studying in universities is about 10%.
True, past year use at 1% in high school students
T/F Self administration and conditioned place preference are displayed for stimulants.
T/F A typical pattern of stimulant use/abuse is a slow steady increase in the number of infusions and dose over several weeks to a fairly stable level maintained thereafter.
False, The common patter is rapid consumption, over several dase, increase in infusions until a point of behavioral disruption causes a period of no response due to exhaustion , followed by resumption of the high rate/high dose pattern.
T/F Barbituate use has been shown to have an effect on offspring..
True, deficits in learning, retarded attainment of dvelopemental milestones, alteration of behavioral and psychological sex difference.

Behavior of male rodents whose mothers were exposed to barbituates was described as "demasculinized" or "feminized."

Human epidemiology studies showed males exposed had an increased likelihood of delayed puberty, undescdened testes and cross gender identities.
What signs of demasculination/feminization is are there in male rats whose mothers were exposed to barbituates.
Activity levels in an open field are higher, more like females than males.
They have shorter latencies in passive avoidance tasks (again more similar to females.)
They have disrupted sexual behavior; fewer mounts, intromission etc.
T/F barbituates show dependence...
What is methaqualone?
What was it designed for?
What's trade name?
A nonbarbiturate sedative hypnotic, anxiolytic... Developed to give the postive effects of barbituates without the potential for abuse/addiction.
It was designed to be an antimalarial drugs, it was noted to have calming effects and was introduced as an anxiolytic in 1965.
Is the methaqualone illegal?
What are some street names for it?
Yes, it's a Class A drug in the USA.
"ludes" "disco bisquits"
What are "disco bisquits?"
What is "luding out"
Taking a few quaaludes and consuming a large quantity of alcohol.
Does methaqualone cause dependence?
Yes, physical dependence with severe withdrawal symptoms.
What is an anxiolytic?
A drug that inhibits anxiety, also known as a mild tranquilizer.
What were propanediols initially created for?
Researchers were attempting to modify a disenfectant to produce a compound that would kill bacteria resistant to penicillin. This lead to the discovery of Mephenesin carbamate, a short lived anti anxiety drug.
What is meprobamate?
A modified version of Mephesin carbamate, an anxiolytic/tranquilizer.
It induced a tranquil state that animals could be roused from.
What was the advantage/disadvantage of meprobamate?
Disadvantage: it had a high potential for abuse, similar to barbituates.
Advantage: The lethal dose was large compared to the therapeutic dose.
Who was Leo H Sternbach?
The polish scientist who discovered the first benzodiazepines.
Discovered chlordiazepoxide (trade name: Librium).
Shortly after diazepam was synthesized from this and marketed as "Valium."
What is Valium?
-Half life.
DIAZEPAM - A benzodiazepine, it's a long acting anxiolitic, it's primary metabolite "nordiazepam" has a half life of 60 hours.
What is the Elevated Plus Maze?
An apparatus int he form of a + that is elevated off the floor. Two arms are walled and two of the arms have no walls, it's placed in an illuminated room.
In general undrugged rats prefer to be in the walled space, rather than out in the open.
Anxiolytics alter rats' preference for the arms, leading to a substantial increase in the amount of time spent in the open arms.
Thus a drugs anxiolytic properties can be measured by the rats time in and out of the unwalled arms.
What is the Geller-Seifter Procedure?
A test for anxiolytic properties in drugs.
Rats are kept in a box with a schedule of reinforcement, The VI (Variable Interval) 2 minute schedule dictates that a reinforcer (food) becomes available every 2 minutes, and if the animal presses the lever after two minutes it gets a reward.
FR (Fixed Ratio) 1 with shock dictates that EVERY bar press results in food but also produces a shock...
Each schedule is signaled to the rat with a colored light, and the schedules are never both present at the same time. In this way rats learn quickly to bar press when VI 2 is in effect and not to bar press when FR1+shock is in effect.

Anxiolytics cause rats to bar press even when FR1+shock is in effect, this effect is exclusive to anxiolytics; pain killers and other drugs do not produce it, only those with anti anxiety effects.
What are the long acting benzodiazepines?
Benzodiazepines that metabolize into long lasting active metabolites...
Diazepam - 'Valium'
Chlordiazepoxide - 'Librium'
Flurazepam - 'Dalmane'
Chlorazepate - 'Tranxene'
1/2 life ~ 60 hours.
What are the intermediate acting benzodiazepines?
Lorazepam - 'Ativan'
Clonazepam - 'Klonopin'
Flunitrazepam - 'Rohypnol'
What is Rohypnol?
Street name "roofies," it's often used as a date rape drug.
It has sedative and amnesic effects.
What are the short acting benzodiazepines?
What are they used for?
Alprazolam - 'Xanax'
Triazolam - 'Halcion'
They're often used as sleep inducing agents.
What is Halcion?
Type, date, purpose, side effects...
A short acting benzodiazepine introduced 1983 that became the most widely prescribed sleeping pill in the world.
It was temporarily banned after reports began to appear of aggressive dyscontol or what was called Halcion "Rage Reaction."
Because of this the dose was reduced...
What is the Rolling Stones song 'Mother's Little Helper" about?
The high use of benzodiazepines among middle aged women.
T/F Benzodiazepines reduce the effect of alcohol or opiates when taken in combination.
False, benzodiazepines enhance the effects of alcohol and opiates.
What is Xanax?
A short acting benzodiazepine, it's found to be involved in roughly a third of all benzodiazpine related hospital visits.
T/F benzodiazepines are considered 'major tranquilizers.'
False, benzodiazepines are minor tranquilizers, this distinguishes them from antipsychotics which are major tranquilizers.
T/F Tolerance develops to the sleep effects of benzodiazepines, (decreased latency to fall asleep, decreased wakings during the night, increased total sleep time, reduced REM sleep...)
True, as well upon withdrawal there is REM rebound, increased REM sleep and bizarre dreams.
T/F Benzodiazepines interfere with learning and memory.
True, this is because they suppress long term potentiation, a brain process involved in the storage of new information.
T/F Benzodiazepines produce anterograde amnesia.
True; often memory is lost from the point of drug administration to when the blood level returns to near zero.
T/F Benzodiazepines exert their effect by acting on the dopaminergic system.
False, they interact with the GABA system.
T/F Benzodiazepines interact directly with GABA receptors.
False, they don't exist their effects unless endogenous GABA is present, they appear to increase or enhance the affinity of GABA for its receptors.
What is GABA modulin?
An endogenous inhibitor of the GABA receptor, benzodiazepines compete with it for occupation of the satalite receptor, GABA modulin binding results in a low affinity of GABA for its receptor, benzodiazepine results in a high affinity of GABA for its receptor.
What is flumazenil?
A benzodiazepine antagonist, it binds to the benzodiazepine receptor but doesn't exert any action.
T/F Barbituates are safer than benzodiazepines.
False, the opposite.
What is "hot foot walking?"
A withdrawal symptom of benzodiazepines seen in dogs.
T/F Long acting benzodiazepines are the most likely to produce depence.
False, short acting benzodiazepines.
T/F Barbituates are more reinforcing than benzodiazepines.
True, benzodiazepines do not reliably maintain responding in the self administration paradigm.
T/F The benzodiazepines that show some self administration are short acting ones.
What is GHB's trade name?
What is GHB?
What are some of it's street names?
How is it consumed?
How long does it last?
A sedative hypnotic, it's an odorless, colorless, slightly salty liquid often sold in solution at raves. It is considered a date rape drug because it potentiates the intoxicant actions of alcohol and produces amnesia.
'Liquid Ecstasy,' 'Easy Lay,' and 'Natures Quaalude.'
It peaks in 30 minutes, lasts about three hours.
T/F GHB shows anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze task.
T/F Flumazenil acts an antagonist to GHB.
True, this suggests that GHB may work in a similar way to benzodiazepines.
T/F GHB can produce physical dependance.
What purpose was GHB sold for?
As a body building aid, it was sold in health food stores, when it was banned 'GBL' a chemical that metabolized into GHB in the body was used for a while.
T/F Opiates are narcotics.
Where does the word 'narcotics' come from?
The greek word "narke" meaning numbness, sleep or stupor.
Where do opiates come from?
The naturally occurring opiates are alkaloids of the poppy plant Papaver Somniferum.
The naturally occurring opiates are alkaloids of the poppy plant Papaver Somniferum.
What is opium?
The unrefined gummy brown residue that comes from the opium poppy seed capsule.
The unrefined gummy brown residue that comes from the opium poppy seed capsule.
T/F Medical use of opium dates back 10 000 years.
False, 4000 years ago.
T/F Laudanum is a drink containing cocaine, wine and other spices.
False, OPIUM wine and other spices.
What caused opium use to spread from the middle east to Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries?
The crusades.
What is "chasing the dragon?"
The smoking of opium, referring to the user pursuing the ascending smoke.
What is the soldiers' disease?
The first widespread incidence of opiate addiction, as a result of morphine use during the American Civil War.
Where did the name morphine come from?
The Greek god of dreams, Morpheus.
What are Godfrey's Cordial, A Pennysworth of Peace, and Mrs. Winslow's Soothing syrup?
Opium containing tonics from the 1800's.
T/F Women users of opium outnumbered men users by as much as three to one.
What did the Narcotics Act of 1914 dictate?
That physicians prescribng opiates keep detailed records and pay a small fee.
Who pressured courts into banning opium?
Harry Anslinger !
What three reasons did Mackenzie King put forward to support the ban of the opium trade following the Vancouver Riots caused by anti chinese crusaders?
1. The trade violated Christian ideals.
2. The Chinese were making huge profits in the trade.
3. Use was increasing among Caucasian men and women.
T/F The 1908 Opium Act was the first drug legislation in Canada.
True, it was a result of Mackenzie King's report on opium use.
What was the difference between the 1908 and 1911 Opium and Drug Act?
The 1908 act made it illegal to import, manufacture or sell opium, the 1911 act made possession a crime.
What was 'The Black Candle.'
The first antidrug book in Canada, written by Emily Murphy (under the pen name 'Janey Canuck') who lead the charge to quash the drug trade and jail users.
What were the important aspects of the 1929 Opium and Narcotic Drug Act?
Records of opiate prescriptions were required, maintenance doses were no longer considered acceptable medical practice, Cannabis was banned, stiffer penalties...
T/F There are 50 active alkaloids in opium, making up 25 percent of opium contents by weight.
False, 25 alkaloids, 25 percent of weight.
What are the 3 most important alkaloids in opium?
Morphine 10%
Codiene 5%
Thebaine .2%
T/F Codeine is more potent than morphine.
What is thebaine?
The source of the opiate derivative oxycodone found in Percodan, Percocet, and Oxycontin.
Who first synthesized heroin?
C.R. Adler Wright in 1874, he added two acetyl groups to the morphine molecule.
T/F Heroin is more lipid soluble , more ionized , and gains access to the CNS more readily than morphine.
False, it's less ionized than morphine.
What is Oxycodone?
The opiate derived from thebaine.
What are Percocet and Percodan?
Oxycodone combined with acetaminophen and aspirin respectively.
What is oxycontin?
A time release capsule of oxycodone, 'hillybilly heroin,' street prices are 10x that of the prescription, it's got a high rate of abuse by people who crush the pills to bypass the time release.

** A new form has replaced it where the time release can't be avoided, it's called 'oxyneo.'
What is oxymorphone?
Trade name: Opana, also extended release form of oxycodone, reported to have overtaken oxycontin as the most abused prescription opiate.
What is hydrocodone?
Oxycodone combined with acetaminophen, 'Vicidin.'
What is Methadone?
'Dolorphine' a long lasting opiate, developed during world war II as a substitute for dwindling morphine supplies, it's used in opiate treatment programs.
What is buprenorphine?
Subutex/Suboxone (with naloxone). Naloxone is present but inaccessible unless the pill is crushed, then it becomes bioavailable and works as an opiate antagonist.
*It lasts longer than methadone and doesn't have as great an overdose potential, it's another opiate maintenance drug.
What is fentanyl?
'Sublimaze' more potent than heroin, used to put patients to sleep, associated with overdose.
What are naloxone and naltrexone?
Opiate antagonists.
T/F The average unit of heroin sold on the streets is 1 gram.
False, 100 milligrams of white powder.
T/F The estimated average street purity of heroin is 60%.
How much is 1 gram of heroin worth on the street?
$180-1200 depending on the region.
T/F The leading cause of accidental death in the US is from prescription opiate abuse.
True, it replaced car accidents.
T/F Past year use of opiates among adults/uni students was ~5% lifetime use ~15.
T/F Past year use of non medical opiates among Ontario high school students was found to be 15%.
T/F opiates may be injected, smoked, snorted and consumed orally.
Which of the following is not an effect of opiate use?
An initial 'intense orgasmic sensation,' euphoria, drowsiness, tranquility, nausea, constricted pupils, depressed respiration, drunkenness, constipation, analgesia or decreased sex hormones?
T/F Codeine is often prescribed as a cough suppressant.
T/F Opiates clearly display self administration.
T/F Opiates cause an increase in dopamine release in the VTA.
T/F opiates display positive conditioned place preference.
How do opiates lead to an increase in dopamine?
They inhibit GABA neurons, leading to disinhibition of dopamine neurons.
T/F opiates affect sigma and mu receptors.
What is the endogenous receptor ligand that opiates mimic?
What effects of opiates does tolerance develop to quickly?
Euphoria, analgesia, respiratory depression.
What effects of opiates does tolerance develop to more slowly?
The constipating effects and the effects on pupil constriction?
T/F In the presence of a lethal dose of heroin rats that have experienced pavlovian conditions AND are presented the pre drug cues survive much better than pavlovian condition rats without the pre drug cue.
What is a "chipper"
A person who uses an addictive drug in a somewhat controlled manner.
(People who only smoke when they drink are called 'nicotine chippers.'
T/F Opiate withdrawal symptoms are often life threatening.
False, they mainly resemble flu symptoms.
How long does opiate withdrawal take?
4-6 hours to set in,
24-72 hour to peak
7-12 days to disappear completely.
T/F Most opiate users relapse at least once.
True. 81% of treated opiate addicts used opiates within the first 6 months following release.
What is methadones trade name?
Why is it a useful substitute for heroin?
What is it made from?
Dolorphine, it's a weaker euphoriant, effective taken orally and has a longer duration (10 - 24 hours).
What is the 'harm reduction philosophy.'
The goal of treatment should be to minimize any harmful effects from continued drug use.
T/F About 80% of heroin addicts seek methadone maintenance.
False, 20%.
T/F Methadone is usually a short term procedure.
False, it's very often life long (only ~ 20% of patients completely stop all opiate use.