• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Norms (social)

rules that regulate social life, including explicit laws and implicit cultural conventions


a given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behaviour


a program of shared rules that govern the behaviour of people in a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs, and customs shared by most members of the community


a gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, or effort

social cognition

an area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception, and beliefs

attribution theory

the theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other people's behaviour by attributing causes of that behaviour to a situation or a disposition

fundamental attribution error

the tendency, in explaining other people's behaviour, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation

just-world hypothesis

the notion that the world is fair and that justice is served, that bad people are punished and good people are rewarded

cognitive dissonnance

a state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds 2 cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person's belief is incongruent with his or her behaviour

familiarity effect

the tendency of people to feel more positive toward a person, item, product, or other stimulus the more familiar they are with it

validity effect

the tendency of people to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated many times


the tendency for all members of a group to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement

diffusion of responsibility

in groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking action because they assume that others will


in groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own individuality

social identity

the part of a person's self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, religious or political group, occupation, or other social affiliation

ethnic identity

a person's identification with a racial or ethnic group


the process by which members of minority groups come to identify with and feel part of the mainstream culture


the belief that one's own ethnic group, nation, or religion is superior to all others


a summary impression of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait or traits (positive, negative, or neutral)


a strong, unreasonable dislike or hatred of a group, based on a negative stereotype


an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelations


a statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relations among events or variables and are empirically tested

operational definition

a precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomena being defined

principle of falsiability

the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to explore the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will happen but also what will not happen

confirmation bias

the tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one's own belief

representative sample

a group of individuals, selected from a population for study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex

descriptive methods

methods that yield descriptions of behaviour but not necessarily causal explanations

case study

a detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated

observational study

a study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behaviour without interfering with the behaviour; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory observation

psychological tests

procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values


in test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test


in test construction, established standards of performance


in test construction, the consistency of scores derived from a test, from 1 time and place to another


the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure


questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions

volunteer bias

a shortcoming of findings derived from a sample or volunteers instead of a representative sample; the volunteers may differ from those who did not volunteer

correlational study

a descriptive study that looks for a consistent relation between 2 phenomena


a measure of how strongly 2 variables are related to one another


characteristics of behaviour or experience that can be measured or described by a numeric scale

positive correlation

an association between increases in one variable and increases in another - or between decreases in one and in another

negative correlation

an association between increases in one variables and decreases in another

coefficient of correlation

a measure of correlation that ranges in value: -1.00 to +1.00


a controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another

independent variable

a variable that an experimenter manipulates

dependent variable

a variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulators of the independent variable

control condition

in an experiment, a comparison condition in which participants are not exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition

random assignment

a procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which each individual has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group


an inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control in an experiment or given by a medical practitioner to a patient

single-blind study

an experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in an experimental or a control group

experimenter effects

unintended changes in study participants' behaviour due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter

double-blind study

an experiment in which neither the people being studied nor the individuals running the study know who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group until after the results are tallied

field research

descriptive or experimental research conducted in a natural setting outside the laboratory

descriptive statistics

statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data

arithmetic mean

an average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number or quantities in the set

standard deviation

a commonly used measure of variability that indicates the average difference between scores in a distribution and their mean

inferential statistics

statistical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study's results are

significance tests

statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study's results occurred merely by chance

cross-sectional study

a study in which people (or animals) of different ages are compared at a given time

longitudinal study

a study in which people (or animals) are followed and periodically reassessed over a period of time

effect size

the amount of variance among scores in a study accounted for by the independent variable


a procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies; it determined how much of the variance in scores across all studies can be explained by a particular variable

informed consent

the doctrine that anyone who participates in human research must do so voluntarily and must know enough about the study to make an intelligent decision about whether to take part


relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement


the discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment


pseudoscience and quackery, covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific sounding language

critical thinking

the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotions or anecdote

Occam's Razor

the principle of choosing the solution that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions


the now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be "read" from bumps on the skull


an early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements


an early psychological approach that emphasized the function of purpose of behaviour and consciousness


a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasized unconscious motives and conflicts

biological perspective

a psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts

evolutionary psychology

a field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behaviour

learning perspecive

a psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions; it includes behaviourism and social cognitive learning theories


an approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behaviour and the role of the environment as a detriment of behaviour

cognitive perspective

a psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behaviour

psychodynamic perspective

a psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of institutitional energy

sociocultural perspective

a psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behaviour

humanist psychology

a psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behaviour

feminist psychology

a psychological approach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behaviours of the two sexes