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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acquisition
the original input of information in a learning or memory experiment
amnesia
loss of memory due to concussion or other injury
animal cognition
theoretical constructs and models used to explain aspects of behavior that cannot be readily characterized in terms of simple s-r or reflex mechanisms. these mechanisms do not require consciousness, awareness, or intentionality.
cognitive ethology
a branch of ethology that assumes that consciousness, awareness, and intentionality can be inferred from the complexity, flexibility, and cleverness of certain forms of behavior
delayed matching to sample
a procedure in which participants are reinforced for responding to a test stimulus that is the same as a sample stimulus that was presented some time earlier
directed forgetting
forgetting that occurs because of a stimulus (a forget cue) that indicates that working memory will not be tested on that trial. directed forgetting is an example of the stimulus control of memory.
memory
a term used to characterize instances in which an organism's current behavior is determined by some aspect of its previous experience
memory consolidation
the establishment of a memory in relatively permanent form, or the transfer or information from short-term to long-term memory
proactive interference
disruption of memory caused by exposure to stimuli before the event to be remembered
procedural memory
memory that mediates the learning of behavioral and cognitive skills that are performed automatically, without conscious control, often reflecting knowledge about invariant relationships in the environment, such as cs-us contiguity or response-reinforcer contiguity.
prospective memory
memory for an expected future event or response
reference memory
long-term retention of background information necessary for successful use of incoming and recently acquired information
rehearsal
a theoretical process whereby information is maintained in an active state, available to influence behavior and/or the processing of other information
retention interval
the time between acquisition of information and a test of memory for that information
retrieval
the recovery of information from a memory state
retrieval cues
a stimulus related to an experience that facilitates the recall of other information related to that experience
retrieval failure
a deficit in recovering information form a memory store
retroactive interference
disruption of memory caused by exposure to stimuli following the event to be remembered
retrograde amnesia
a gradient of memory loss going back in time from the occurrence of a major injury or physiological disturbance. amnesia is greatest for events that took place closest to the time of injury.
retrospective memory
memory for a previously experienced event
simultaneous matching to sample
a procedure in which participants are reinforced for responding to a test stimulus that is the same as a sample stimulus. the sample and the test stimuli are presented at the same time
stimulus coding
how a stimulus is represented in memory
trace decay hypothesis
the theoretical idea that exposure to a stimulus produces changes in the nervous system that gradually and automatically decrease after the stimulus has been terminated
trials-unique procedure
a matching-to-sample procedure in which different sample and comparison stimuli are used on each trial
working memory
short-term retention of information that is needed for successful responding on the task at hand but not on subsequent or previous similar tasks.