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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

3 major mechanisms within the biological perspective



-brain structure and chemistry


stable individual differences in dispositions (moods and behaviors) that are inherited and present at birth or early childhood

-genetically based

-more persuasive and influential

-stable, influence development of personality traits throughout life

-can be modified through experience

inhibited children

controlled and gentle

-ones who cling to their mothers or fathers when entering a new playroom or when meeting new children

-slow to explore new toys or equipment and may go for several minutes without saying a word

uninhibited children

show the opposite pattern

-jump right in to play with a new toy or to climb on a new piece of playground equipment

-usually start talking soon after they enter a new play area, even if they don't already know the other children playing there

3 temperaments according to the EAS model





refers to the intensity of emotional reactions

-children who cry frequently, are easily frightened, and who often express anger


refers to a persons general level of energy

-children who prefer games that require running and jumping and tend to fidget and squirm when forced to sit still for an extended period of time


relates to a general tendency to affliate and interact with others

-children who seek out other children to play wtih

-have lots of friends and enjoy social gatherings

the big 5







excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness


trust, altruism, kindness, affection


high levels of thoughtfulness, good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors


emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability and sadness


imagination, insight, tend to have a broad range of interests

behavorial genetics

the study of genetic influences on behavioral qualities

-to research and find to what extent and how our personalities are shaped by genetics and the environment


the degree to which a particular characteristic is influenced by genetics

-we are born with a potential for certain personalities that combines with environmental influences to determine adult personality outcomes

importance of family studies

members of a family not only share genes, they share living environments as well

twin studies

2 same-sex DZ twins and 2 MZ twins share very similar environments. Regardless of type, are the same age, same sex and live in the same house under the same rules

-most significant study

adoption studies

the children have shared no environment with the mothers but are still linked by genes

-strength is weaker than twin-studies

evolutionary personality psychology

how the processes of evolution, adaptation and natural selection have led to the development of psychological mechanisms that allow us to deal with problems or needs that arise in our environment

how could evolutionary forces influence our personaltiy characteristcs?

influeces our mating selection

natural selection

processes that increase our chances for survival and reproduction are retained and passed down to future generations

-"selective breeding"

inclusive fitness

the ability of an individual organism to pass on its genes to the next generation, taking into account the shared genes passed on by the organism's close relatives

kin altruism

we are more helping and sacrificing for individuals who share our genes

intrasexual competition

the competition among members of one gender for mating access to the best members of the other gender

-men: more likely to consider physical attractiveness

-women: more likely to consider resources

parental investment differences

-men: more likely to prefer a younger partner for likelihood of reproduction

-women: more resources for supporting children

preferences for multiple sex partners

-men more likely to engage than women

differences in jealousy

men: more with sexual infidelity

women: more with emotional infidelity

Eysenck's theory of personality





egocentric, aggressive, impersonal, cold, lacking in empathy, impulsive, lacking in concern for others

cerebral assymetry

2 hemispheres specialized for different functions

-damage to left hemisphere: anxiety/depression

-damage to right hemisphere: sense of well-being

EEG recordings

-left = positive emotions, rewarding activities

-right = negative emotions, avoiding pain

BIS (behaviorial inhibition system)

-response to punishers, novel situations

-associated w/right frontal cortex

-associated w/neuroticism

BAS (behavioral approach system)

-reward seeking

-associated w/left frontal cortex

-associated w/extraversion

BAS (behavioral approach system)

-reward seeking

-associated w/left frontal cortex

-associated w/extraversion


depending on levels of base-rate cortical arousal, extraverts are more likely to be less sensitive to stimulation therefore they thrive to seek more sensation

cloninger's tridimensional model

novelty seeking (dopamine)

harm avoidance (serotonin)

reward dependence (norepinephrine)

How does hormones influence personality

hormones influence personality by the certain levels of estrogen and testosterone that are within females and males, which influences their personality and temperaments

4 key elements of the humanistic perspective

-personal responsibility

-here and now

-people know themselves the best

-personal growth


tendency to develop capabilities to maintain or enhance the organism


tendency to develop capabilities to maintain or enhance the organism

carl roger's theory of personality

2 major motivations


need for positive regard

fully functioning person characteristics


need for positive regard

fully functioning person

-healthy individual striving toward self-actualization

fully functioning person characteristics

-open to experience

-trust their feelings

-sensitive to own interests, values, needs

conditional positive regard

you are loved/accepted only if you behave as expected

conditions of worth

the requirements for receiving positiive regard

unconditional positive regard

-we know we will be accepted and loved no matter what we say or do

-with parents, adult relationship w/ friends and romantic partners


how well the parts fit together as an integrated whole


when discrepancies between real/ideal or when experiences don't match your self-concept

defenses to maintain congruence




modify the threat to make it compatible with self-concept


-refusing to admit the experience happened

person-centered therapy

-help people accept themselves and realize they are worthy

-unconditional positive regard



maslow's hierachy of needs

-need for self-actualization

-esteem needs

-belongingness and love needs

-safety needs

-physiological needs

need for self-actualization

attempting to find what our inner self wants and needs

esteem needs

the need to perceive oneself as competent and achieving the needs for admiration and respect

belongingness and love needs

need for friendship and love

safety needs

the need for security, stability, protection, structure, order and freedom from fear or chaos

physiological needs

thirst, hunger, air and sleep

deficiency motives

result from a lack of some needed object

-hunger and thirst

growth motives

are not satisfied simply by finding the object of our need

-satisfied by expressing the motive

-include the unselfish giving of love to others and the development of one's unique potential

characteristics of self-actualized people

-accept themselves and others for what they are

-form deep, interpersonal relationships


-self-actualizing creativity

-desire to help mankind

-experience many peak experiences

peak experiences

brief moments of intense self-actualization

optimal experiences and flow

intensely enjoyable, but they usually are not restful, relaxing moments. Most often flow experiences are quite demanding

the 3 fundamental needs of self-determination theory





feeling in control of their own behaviors and goals


people need to gain mastery of tasks and learn different skills


people need to experience a sense of belonging and attachment to other people


the evaluative component of the self-concept; stable self-evaluations

contingencies of self-worth

each of us identifies domains that we consider important to us; that is, areas we use to determine our self-worth (academics, physical appearance, acceptance from family and friends) Then, we form evaluations of ourselves based on how we do in those selected areas

mechanisms for self-esteem maintenance or protection

-framing the self

-self-serving attributions

-downward social comparisons



occurs when your personal relationships network is smaller or less satisfying than you desire

-perception of the amount and quality of social interactions


receiving enjoying by being by oneself