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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
multiple sclerosis
autoimmune disorder, immune system attacks myelin of axons in the CNS
areas affected vary, often seen as a motor weakness, sensory disturbance (numb/tingle)

treat:B interferon
ADHD treatment
dopamine reuptake blockers
-ritalin, adderall, increase DA levels
norepinephrine reuptake blocker
-straterra, increase synaptic NE levels
Parkinson's Disease
symptoms: tremors, bradykindesia rigidity, postural gait disturbance. evntually dementia

dopamine neurons of substantia nigra die
lack of dopamine disturbs activity basal ganglia causes motor dysfunction

treat: dopamine precursor therapy- LDopa (the immediate precurser to dopamine) DP decarboxylase convers LDP to DP, Dpreyl- prevents breakdown of DP, Pallidotomy/thallotomy surgery, fetal DP cell transplants
Alzheimer's pathology
death of certain groups of neurons esp cells in nucleous basalis in forebrain that project axons to cerebral cortex and release ACh

serotonin and NE also dies in the cortex/hippocampus
Myasthenia gravis
immune system attacks and destroys ACh receptors on muscle fibers -> muscle weakness and loss of movement

treat: acetylcholine terase inhibitors (block enayme that breaks ACh down), remove thymus gland (part of immune system)
Huntington's Disease
inherited disease in which basal ganglia esp caudate/putamen progressively degenerate
GABAergic and ACh neurons destroyed
symptoms begin as motor disfunction and progresses to dimentia. start as jerky movements.
defective gene - chrom 4 and codes for protein "huntington" defective (longer than usual)
NO treat
Causes of Mental Handicap
genes, prenatal factors, famililial retardation

genetic inf on fetus:
-phenlketonuria: toxic accumulation of that (faulty enzyme to break down)
-down syndrome(trisomy 21): 3 instead of 2 chromosomes
crystallized vs fluid intelligence
crystal- referred to as knowledge, skills, abilities

fluid - info processing, memory, ability to use reason
kinds of intelligence
Spearmans G (generalized)
crystallized vs. fluid
Sternberg intelligence
practical (day to day living) and emotional intelligences
behavior to understand the world, think rationally use resources and profit from experience
Alzheimer's treatment
increase neurotransmission of ACh by preventing degradation after synaptic release
-cholaneastural drugs : tracrimi (cognex) & donezepil (Aricept)
Exp treatments: anti-inflamatory drugs (ibprofen, indomethacin)
diagnosis of Alzheimer's
based on biopsy/autopsy of brain which shows neruofibrillary tangles (inside neurons) and amyloid plaques (mostly extracellular deposits)
intelligence test for educational purpose, large sample and avgerage levels
IQ= mental/chronological x100

IQ norm= 100 SD = 15
68% ppl IQ = 85-115
affective (mood) disorders
symptoms = disturbance of mood (prolonged emotion) depressive/manic episodes
anterograde amnesia
loss of ability to form new memories AFTER trauma (HM)
bipolar (manic/depressive) disorder
occurence of manic and depressive episodes
major (unipolar) depression
depressive episode w/o history of manic episode (maybe recurrent)
females 2x more likely to report it
brain disorders
enlarged ventricles (fluid filled spaces) in brain usually a sign of brain cell death
b:g - 3:1
abnormal social skills/interest, lack of empathy, no eye contact, communication, imagination.

atypical brain development cortex and cerebellum abnormalities
inattention, distractibility, impulsivity , hyperactivity
Alzheimer's Disease
initial impairment in recent memory followed by deterioration in nearly ALL cognitive abilities
disorder that includes impairment in reality testing
retrograde amnesia
loss of ability to recall memories from BEFORE brain trauma (Samantha who?)
schizophrenia positive symptoms
presence of abnormal psych and behavioral phenomena (hallucinations/delusions)
pyramidal system
primary motor cortex neurons
ventral neurons
patient HM
bilateral medial temporal lobectomy to control drug resistant epilepsy (removed hippocampus)
inability to form new memories
can be classically conditioned (stim-response learning), can learn motor behaviors (typing keys in order, but not way home)
autism causes
-70% identical twins
-chrom 2,7,15,19, X
-shared symptoms w/ OCS and tourettes

-birth complications
-prenatal exp to drugs during CNS development
Wernicke's/Korsakoff's Disorder
antero/retro grade amnesia in declarative memory
alcohol dementia
confabulation: creative/false memories
caused by thiamine (B1) deficiency
damage to medial thalamus and mamillary bodies
-base of forebrain (limbic system)
-input from hippocampus, output to thalamus
1% of population
schizophrenia negative symptoms
absence of normal psychological behavior (lack of speech, impaired emotion apathy)
tricyclic antidepressant drugs
inhibit reuptake of serotonin and NE in synaptic cleft back into presynaptic neuron
relationship btwn brain size and intelligence
IQ heredity vs. environment
intelligence has heritability
-identical twins have highest correlation btwn IQs
-correlation lower btwn sibs
environment has BIG influence (Ex- head start)
mental handicap IQ levels
mild: 50-70
moderate: 35-49
severe: 20-34
profound: <20
input to brainstem spinal cord -> balance posture, coordination, timing
relationship to nerve conduction velocity
faster = higher IQ scores
(computer example, fast computers are good)
aging and intelligence
speed decreases with age, partly overcome by knowledge
(computer example, more stuff on it but slower)
Wechler's intelligence scale (WAIS-III)
Wechler's scale for children (WISC-IV)

tests have subtest for verbal.performance scale IQs
tardive dyskinesia
followign logn term administration of antipsychotic drugs 20-30% of patients
-involuntary oral and facial movement, tics and grimacing
Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles/amyloid plaques
complexes of protein filaments
-make up cytoskeleton

abnormal, longer form of B-amyloid peptide and congregates together. these clums are toxic to neurons
classical conditioning (pavlonian conditioning)
Pavlov - study digestion
UCStimulous->UCResponce (not learned)
CS (neutral stim becomes assoc w. UCS like bell/buzz)
CR (learned)

CS -> CR (UCR turns to CR)
timing during conditioning: CS occurs before UCS ( CS is predictive: there is a contingenct btwn CS and UCS)
CS presented alone repeatedly -> CR stops occiring
conditioned emotional response
UCS: foot shock
CS: tone
UCR, CR: non-specific "emotional" response
cellular mechanisms of learning in the hippocampus: long-term potential (LTP)
population spike: electrical activity recordd in a brain region that represents the activity (ac pot) of many neurons at the same time
electrical stimulation: axons can be stimulated electrically, causing nrtrsmter release from axon into synapse
LTP experiment: stimulate axons perforant path (input to hippocampus), record changes in pop spike in denate gyrus of hippocampus

result: LTP, increase in size of pop spike

importance of glutamate for LTP
operant conditioning (thorndike, skinner)
learnign an association btwn a behavior and a stimulus

reinforcement - INCREASE behavior
positive - (presence) stimulus after behavior
negative - (absence) of a stimulus behavior

punishment - DECREASE behavior
operant conditioning reinforcement mechanisms
electrical brain stimulation - place stimulating electrode in medial forebrain bundle (contains DP neurons), lever to control stimulation of electrode, animals learn quickly to press lever to receive stimulation

--dopamine antagonists (block DP receptors) -> reduce lever pushing