James Prkinson's Disease Case Study

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PARKINSON’S DISEASE
PD is irreversible, progressive disease, described by James Prkinson’s in 1817 in “An essay on the Shaking Palsy”. The incidence of PD increases with age, more than 2.6% population of age 85-90 are affected, some rare cases individuals with age group 60 above are affected approximately 0.6% (54). Majority are idiopathic. Signs include difficulty in movement, tremor, rigidity. Pathologically, PD affects a part of substantia nigra. Patients those who are suffering from PD are diagnosed during PM, histopathological examination for loss of pigmented neurons and presence of lewy bodies in neurons. Immunostaining for proteins – ubiquitin and alpha – synuclein facilitate the studies on lewy bodies(55).
Arvid carlsson revealed that dopamine, a neurotransmitter in neurons of substantia nigra. L – dopa drug is used to treat the deficiency of dopamine in the substantia nigra. 70% of the dopamine containing neurons will be lost causing dopamine deficiency and turns the tissue black. Major regions of brain are affected, lower region of the brain stem known as medulla oblongata, which moves up through the basal ganglia into cortical areas (56).
Dopamine metabolites increase the reactive oxygen level that
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PET scans of brain also shows abnormalities of brain, in the globus pallidus and F-dopa (59). As the disease is related to deficit in dopamine production, base line treatment is supplying the sufficient amount of dopamine through medications. Dopamine cannot cross blood – brain barrier whereas L – dopa can cross. Other drugs such as monoamine oxidase B inhibitors are used but standard treatment is with L – dopa. There is an approach that is 5 years behind the analogous putative therapy, which encountered difficulties due to the immunization of alpha – synuclein transgenic mouse to produce anti-synuclein antibodies, which helps in reducing the deposition of alpha – synuclein in neuronal

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