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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
What phylum do amoebae belong to?
-Phylum Sarcodina
Where do you find Amoeba P.?
-freshwater on bottom debris
What is plasmalemma?
-the cell membrane that bounds amoeba
What are/is pseudopodia/lobopodia?
-blunt projections on amoeba
-for movement and feeding
List the organelles found in amoeba.
-food vacuoles
-contractile vacuoles
How do amoeba move?
-by cytoplasmic streaming. Forms pseudopodia
-ectoplasm appears stationary, endoplasm moves.
What is a Hyaline cap?
-found in amoeba
-clear fluid continually forming at the distal end of the pseudopodium
What is the uroid?
-the region that refers to the posterior end of the amoeba that crumples due to the forward movement
What is plasmagel?
-found in amoeba
-the rigid gel-like cytoplasm that makes up the ectoplasm
What is plasmasol?
-found in amoeba
-makes up the endoplasm, loose flowing
How do amoeba feed?
-forms food cups with the pseudopodia
-engulfs the food to form a food vacoule
How do amoeba digest?
-lysosomes fuse with the food vacoules to delvier digestive enzymes
-vacuoles may subdivide into several smaller vacuoles to increases surface area
How do amoeba get rid of waste?
-reverse phagocytosis
How do cells within an amoeba distribute nutrients?
-by cytoplasmic streaming
What is the function of the contractile vacuole?
-it is the main organelle of osmoregulation
What are the 4 amoeba movement theories?
1)Pressure Theory
2)Front Contraction Theory
3)Gel-endoplasm Shearing Theory
4)Movement involving actin Theory
Give only the names. We'll go in depth on another card
What does the Pressure Theory of amoeboid movement suggest?
-contraction of the ectoplasm near the posterior end of the amoeba squeezes the endoplasm forward to form pseudopodia
What does the Front Contraction Theory of amoeboid movement suggest?
-suggests that endoplasm is not a homogeneous sol, there is a core of gel in the centre of the amoeba
-the core can contract in the region where the amoeba is going to form a pseudopodium
-squeezes out water to form the hyaline cap
-contraction pulls the whole core forward therefor collapsing the rear
What does the Gel-endoplas Shearing Theory of amoeboid movement suggest?
-accepts most components of front contraction theory
-further suggests that a ratchet mechanism at the interface of the gel core and gel tube is responsible for moving the core gel past the peripheral gel
What does the Actin Involved Theory of amoeboid movement suggest?
-actin is present in the ectoplasm
-supports the sides of the developing pseudopods
-actin disassembles nears the tip of the pseudopodium, causing a concentration gradient, therefor pulling water into the pseudopodium
-actin is then reformed and cycle continues
List the characteristics of Pelomyxa carolinensis.
-larger than amoeba proteus
-has fewer but more blunt pseudopodia than Amoeba proteus
3 of them
List the characteristics of Entamoeba gingivalis.
-lives on the gum tissues of man
-very small
-pseudopodia are very short and blunt
3 of them
List the characteristics of Entamoeba histolytica.
-lives in the intestines of humans
-eats bacteria in the intestine, may eat into intestinal walls
-always reproduces asexually, done in 2 ways
1)binary fission
2)cyst formation
-cyst is passed in feces and ill infect a new host if ingested
4 of them
What are the two testate forms of amoeba that are closely related to the naked amoeba?

What order do they belong to?
1)Arcella - Chitinous domeshaped test with round opening at bottome

2)Difflugia - test made of mineral particles ingest and then embedded in a secreted matrix

**Belong to Order Testacea**
Is Arcella binucleate, uninucleate or polynucleate?
-All of them
What is the main characteristic of the Order Foraminifera?
-secretes calcium carbonate shells consisting of a single or multiple chambers
What is multilocular?
-term for many chambered shells
What is reticulopodia?
-long, slender, trhread-like branched and interconnected pseudopodia of Foraminireans

-important in movement, secreting the shell and trapping food organisms
What is actinopodia?
-pseudopodia with internal skeletons of microtubules
What are radiolarians?
-marine organisms that secrete complicated siliceous skeletons composed of concentric hollow balls connected by radiating rods which continue outward as spines

-has a central capsule which separates the cell into intra and extra capsular regions
What are Heliozoans?
-have actinopodia like radiolarians but don't have a central capsule

-everything else is like radiolarians(ie: food capture etc.)