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40 Cards in this Set

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Protist
• First eucaryotes
• Polyphyletic
• Includes any eucaryote that is not plant, fungus or animal
• Evolved from procaryotes by: membrane invagination
endosymbiosis
Protist Characteristics
• Unicellular, Multicellular or Colonial
• Heterotrophic, Autotrophic or Mixotrophic
Supergroup Excavata
Common cytoskeletal features
Many possess lateral ‘feeding groove’
Three monophyletic groups:
Diplomonads, Parabasalids & Euglenozoans
Diplomonads
Anaerobic habitats
Nonfunctional mitochondria (mitosomes)
Mitosomes
nonfuntional mitochondria
Parabasalids
Anaerobic habitats
Modified mitochondria (hydrogeonsomes)
Hydrogenosomes
modified mitochondria
Euglenozoans
Free-living members: autotrophic or heterotrophic Crystalline rod in flagella
Two groups: Kinetoplastids & Euglenids
Kinetoplastids
Single mitochondrion with mass of DNA (kinetoplast)
Euglenids
Free-living heterotrophs and mixotrophs
1 or 2 flagella emerging from pocket
Supergroup Chromalveolata
Possibly arose by 2o endosymbiosis of a red algal cell.
Two sub-groups: Alveolata & Stramenopiles
Alveolata
Possess spaces (alveoli) beneath membrane
Subdivided according to mode of locomotion.
Alveolata - Dinoflagellates
• Pair of flagella in surface groove.
• Reinforced by cellulose plates.
cause red tide
Alveolata - Apicomplexans
• No apparent means of locomotion.
• All parasitic.
• Complex life cycles with asexual and sexual stages.
Includes:
Plasmodium spp. (malaria) & Eimeria spp.
Alveolata - Ciliates
• Move by cilia.
• All free-living except Balantidium spp.
• Possess lateral Oral |Groove.
• Two nuclei (macronucleus & micronucleus)
Chromalveolata - Stramenopiles
• Long-multibranched flagellum
• Short smooth flagellum in some
Stramenopiles - Diatoms
• Unicellular aquatic algae
• Perforated silica shell
Stramenopiles – Golden Algae
• Contain Carotenoid pigments
• Cells possess two terminal flagella
• Unicellular or colonial
• Resistant cysts
Stramenopiles – Brown Algae
• Multicellular
• Specialized tissues and organs
• Some freshwater
• Most marine (seaweeds)

Isomorphic
Male and female gametophytes have similar appearance
Heteromorphic
Male and female gametophytes have different appearance
Stramenopiles – Oomycetes
• Were classified as fungi
• Similarity due to Convergent Evolution
• Cell walls contain cellulose not chitin
• Have lost plastids
• Decomposers or parasites
Supergroup Rhizaria
• Monophyletic
• Most move via pseudopodia
• Referred to as ‘amoebae’
• Similar organisms in other Supergroups
• Three groups:
Radiolarians Foraminiferans (Forams) & Cercozoans
Rhizaria - Radiolarians
• Almost all marine
• Internal silica skeleton
Rhizaria - Forams
• Almost all marine
• Shell (Test) of calcium carbonate
• May have symbiotic algae
Rhizaria - Cercozoans
• Amoeboid and flagellated members
• All have pseudopodia
• Heterotrophic, autotrophic and mixotrophic members
Supergroup Archaeplastida
• Two groups: Red algae & Green algae
• Share common ancestor with land plants
Archaeplastida – Red algae
• Marine
• Most are large and multicellular
• Pigment is Phycoerythrin
• Also possess accessory pigments to
absorb blue and green light
• Can live at greater depths than other
algae
• Referred to as ‘seaweeds’
• Non-motile sperm
Archaeplastida – Green algae
• Marine and freshwater
• Most are large and multicellular
• Some unicellular and colonial
• Pigment is Chlorophyll
• Two groups: Charophytes & Chlorophytes
Green algae - Charophytes
• Share characteristics with land plants.
• May share ancestor with land plants
• May be direct ancestor of land plants
Green algae - Chlorophytes
• Mostly freshwater
• Some marine, few terrestrial
• Unicellular, colonial and multicellular members
• Adapted for different climates
Green algae - Chlorophytes
Chlamydomonas
Unicellular
Resemble gametes of multicellular chlorophytes
Green algae - Chlorophytes
Volvox
Colonial
Identical cells work cooperatively
Green algae - Chlorophytes
Caulerpa
Multinucleate filaments without cross-walls
Green algae - Chlorophytes
Ulva
Multicellular with different cell types
Supergroup Unikonta- Amoebozoans
• Large pseudopodia
• Thought to be monphyletic
• Three groups:
Slime molds, Entamoebas, & Gymnamoebas
Amoebozoans – Slime molds
• Morphologically similar to fungi
• Similarities due to convergent evolution
• Two types:
Plasmodial slime molds & Cellular slime molds
Amoebozoans – Gymnamoebas
• Free living
• Aquatic and terrestrial members
• Most are heterotrophic scavengers or predators
Amoebozoans – Entamoebas
• Some free living, most parasitic or mutualistic
• Entamoeba histolytica causes disease in humans
Contributions of Protists
• Basis of food chains
• Decomposers
• Primary producers
• Disease
• Provide nutrients