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252 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the main goal of Cronbach's
"correlational" approach?
to fit people to existing programs
A major purpose of the Aptitude by Treatment Intervention (ATI) approach was to...
individualize instruction
The traditional school psychology paradigm focuses on childrens...
One problem with conducting special education research is that...
students cannot be randomly assigned to treatments
Which statement is true about students identified as Learning Disabled (LD)?
They account for more than half of all special ed students
Another term sometimes used for the ability-achievement discrepancy model is...
Which was a result of the national movement towards accountability?
including a special ed students in state testing
Under the traditional paradigm, what do school psychologists spend the most time on?
assessing children with standardized tests
According to NASP, which of these is one of the four core domains of competence for school psychologists?
data-based decision making
The proposed new school psychology paradigm stresses...
The assistance team is comprised of...
the teacher, the parent, other teachers and the guidance counselor`
According to the Heartland Problem-Solving Model, at what level should an LSSP get involved in the problem-solving process?
Level III
The purpose of the Extended Problem-Solving Team at Level III is to...
solve the problem within the general education classroom
According to the Heartland Problem Solving Model, the problem should be defined as the difference between...
environmental expectations and the student's current functioning
When defining a problem, there are the two questions that must be...
Problem-Solving in educational should be based on...
informal observations.
According to the Heartland Problem-Solving Model, at what level should the student be evaluated for sp ed services?
Level IV
According to the Heartland Problem-Solving Model, at what level are all due process and procedural safeguards available under IDEA?
Level IV
What four questions guide the problem-solving process?
What is the problem?Why is it happening? What is the problem? What should be done about it?
When determining expectations for the individual, it is advantageous to compare the child to their...
previous expectations.
What have been some areas of school psychology significantly impacted by the law?
Roles, Responsibilities, Delivery of School Psych services -- All of the above
What is the foundation for all laws?
The U. S. Constitution
What is the most influential source of law affecting the delivery of educational and psychological services?
Which Constitutional Amendment is considered to grant the matter of public education to states?
The 10th Amendment
Which Constitutional Amendment has been the most influential with respect to special education and school psychological services
The 14th Amendment
Which law first provided the recipients of federal financial assistance could not discriminate on the basis of a handicap?
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (1973)
Which law is considered to be the most comprehensive piece of civil rights legislation directed toward the disabled that Congress has ever enacted?
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
The reauthorization of IDEA in 1997 protected disabled students in what age range?
Birth to 21 years old.
Individual Education Programs should include which of the following?
Individualized goals, Individualized objectives, Indivdualized time lines for objectives -- all the above
Which Act established rules regarding access and inspection, copying, and release of student records?
the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
In the Guidelines for the Provision of School Psychological Services, the second section outlines responsibilities that should be assumed by the unit responsible for providing psychological services. What does the first section define?
The responsibilities of the individual school psychologist
According to Practice Guideline 1, school psychologists should use a decision making process that involves which of the following?
Collaboration with other team members.
According to Practice Guideline 4, school psycholgists should use what type of perspectives in their decision-making?
multiple theoretical
According to Practice Guideline 8, school psychologists should understand and promote the importance of what influences in children's wellness, learning and achivement?
The unit, according to the Guidelines, is defined as...
The entity responsible for ensuring that schools, students, and families receive comprehensive psychological services.
According to Unit Guideline 2, the unit should create a work environment climate wherein employees have freedom to do what?
advocate for the services necessary to meet their client's needs
Which adjective describes the type of supervision the Guidelines says should exist between the psycholgoist and psychologist supervisor?
According to Unit Guideline 6, which statement is true regarding professional development?
Continued Professional Development should be adequate and relevant to the service delivery priorities of the unit.
According to Unit Guideline 7, psychological services can be provided by...
district employed school psycholgists, and psycholgoists employed in independent practice or other agencies.
Overall, the Guidelines are to serve as what for school psychologists?
a model for "good practice"
Areas of expertise used by SP in system-level changes will include all of the following:
An understanding human behavior from a social systems perspective; an ability to use collaborative planning and problem solving procedures; a familiarity with principles for organizational change.
A system is:
any 2 people who work at the same place; an orderly combination of parts that interact to produce a desired outcome/product; a lawnmower engine -- all of the above
A model for viewing the individual child within a systems framework was proposed by:
The system consultant's role is to:
Facilitate the efforts of the group to achieve the goals that the group has decided upon, in a manner that the group chooses.
Bergan's model includes all of the following:
Problem/Situation Analysis; Goal Identification; strategy development and implementation; evaluation
Input evaluation will includ
an examination fo resources avilable to address identified needs
Systems level change:
takes on-going intervention
In analyzing the problem in system-level consulting, it is essential to identify the system's:
Resources and obstacles to resolution
T/F It is important to work on more than one problem at a time in order to address as many as possible in the short time that the group is meeting with the consultant.
In problem-solving, it is important to:
decide and write down who will be responsible for what and by when; establish a procedure for follow-up and review; describe the problem as concretely as possible
The most common definition of culture is
the values, beliefs, and attitudes that are unique to a given group of individuals
Cultural traits represent ____ whereas biological traits represent____.
ethnic groups; race
According to Atkinson, Morten, and Sue which of the following levels of acculturation are the intra-psychic conflict where personal views regarding cultural differences shift between degrees of acceptance and rejection?
Which of the following is true about the increasing diversity in the US?
Non white groups are increasing as Americans from European descent is decreasing
School psychologists will receive the bulk of their education on cultural competence from
books, workshops, and other training opportunities
School culture represents a _________ base.
The ____ group plays a significant role in the growth, development and psychological well-being of children?
Effective communication is based solely on which form of communication?
verbal and nonverbal
Cultures that use high-context communication derive meaning through
experience, history and implicit messages.
SP should adhere to the following principles when gathering culturally-relevant information?
establish rapport; identify the presenting problem; learn the family system
The vast majority of immigrants entering the U S are from
Latin America and Asia
____ can be defined as a group's shared, dynamic behavior towards humankind's basic needs: food, clothing, shelter, family organization, government, protection, social organization, search for knowledge, religion and the arts
The process of adopting the cultural norms and ethnic traits of the majority, while often rejecting the norms of one's own culture is
The bleief that human groups inherit certain mental, personality, and cultural characteristics that determines their behavior
____ is harder to detect and may be more covert.
Institutional racism
When schools are unable to "team" decisions and cases that involve cultural issues, they should ____
hire a consultant
Individuals who are able to negotiate two cultures successfully are said to be
culturally competent
____ describes a group of people who are singled out due to physical and cultural characteristics and often regard themselves as objects of discrimination
minority group
Developing sensitivity and understanding of another ethnic group is referred to as
cultural awareness
The model that encourages a practitioner to view the child as an active participant in a system that is connected at all levels.
ecological perspective
Which of the following is a processing skills that supports the enactment of collaboration?
problem solving skills; listening and communicating; recognizing family perogatives
When working with any parent, it is important to:
have flexible scheduling
The first four sequential stages that a family goes through according to the Stage Theory of parental acceptance isd
shock, denial, sadness, anger
Which of the folliwng disabilities is accepted similarly across social classes
physical disability
Which of the following is a characteristic associated with healthy adaptation for families with a mentally retarded child?
having a clear diagnosis of the child's disability
Information school psycholgoists might share with families is
behaviors associated with the disability; characteristic patterns of development for the disability; community resources available to the family
The 1975 legislation that mandated the requirement of parental consent and notification of evaluation was
P.L. 94-142, Education for all Handicapped Children Act
Which of the following is an indirect financial cost placed on families with a disabled child?
lost time at work
In general, parents of a child with a disability
less frequently engage in leisure activities
Traditionally, which of the following ethnic groups believe in male dominance, subordination of young to old and is more person oriented over goal oriented?
A ____ is based on the establishment of a mutual goal or shared agenda between educators and parents to improve educational outcomes for students.
____ focuses on the relationship between home and school and how parents and educators work together to promote the social and academic development of children
Home-school collaboration
When is parent involvement greatest in school?
elementary school years
In order for schools to keep parents involved, schools must
communicate with parents; allow parents to volunteer; involve parents in decision making, collaborate with the community -- all of the above
What five variables influence the formation of family-school partnerships?
family characteristics and beliefs, child characteristics, school personnel characteristics and beliefs, neighborhood characteristics, time
Two way communication can be fostered between the home and school by ...
newsletters, notes home, suggestion box, handbook
Who does a school psycholgist communicate with?
The student, parent and school personnel
In order to effectively work with parents, school psycholgists must develop ____ a multi-step sharing of perspectives between families and school psycholgists in order to understand one another.
cultural reciprocity
What is the difference between or voluntary minorities and involuntary minorities?
immigrants moved to a new country for a better life while involuntary immigrants were brought to another society against their will
Immigrants, or voluntary minorites, are better able to overcome their cultural differences because they have developed a ____, the ability to compare their current experience with the previous experiences to conclude that they are better off in their new country
dual frame of reference
The most widely recognized feature of consultation is
indirect service
Which of the following stages of consultation focuses on the variables and conditions that influence the child's prosocial and challenging behaviors?
problem analysis
What impedes problem solving or plan implementation and ultimately problem resolution?
Which assessment-intervention approach utilizes teacher as the primary assessment and intervention agent for children having difficulties with academic skills
Psycholgoists implement consultation with teachers to ____.
establish intervention programs in the classroom.
Can problem-solving consultation be extended to help the parent with their child?
Which part of the consultation report includes a description of any intervention programs or procedures used during consultation?
intervention plan
Which research method focuses on problem identification?
process research
What is one of the goals of problem-solving consultation?
provide methods for changing a child's behavioral, academic, or social problems
T/F Interpersonal relationships do not play a major role in the use and effectiveness of consultation.
Best practices in school consultation supports which model within the schools
Which types of consultation are likely to take place within schools?
consultation with individual teaches; with parents; with groups; system wide consultation
Which of the following is not an effective way to increase the consultees' skills
avoid addressing the systems perspective
School consultation is shifting the focus slowly from the individual child to the ____
Reciprocal nature of consultative interactions are derived from which learning theory?
Albert Bandura
Ecological and systems perspective expands and broadens the goals to include
curricula, other system levels, classrooms -- all of the above
Prerequisite competencies for consultation include:
sense of self-awareness; Knowledge of intervention technology; sensitivity to cultural, racial, ethnic, socioeconomic and gender issues
When selecting an intervention what is the first step:
implement positive intervention approaches before behavior suppression
The three influences on the consultation process include which of the following
acceptability; adherence; treatment integrity
Broader Consultation may involve
a whole school
T/F Teachers should knwo whether or not a student will qualify prior to referring them to the pre-referral team
Pre-requjisites necessary to carry out a pre-referral team include
understanding of dydacdic consultation; understanding of a problem-solving model; understanding of literature and interventions based on research
Why use a team format in the pre-referral process?
teams tend to develop a sense of mission, purpose or team spirit; teams provide support from colleagues while enduring resistance
Which of the following are positive reasons for having the principal as part of the pre-referral intervention team?
teachers find it harder to circumvent the pre-referral process by trying to appeal to the principal; the principal can coordinate key personnel and services to assist in the intervention
T/F According to the book, one reason a state-wide mandate for a pre-referral process can be beneficial is because it tends to energize the attention and support of central office personnel
Three important forms of data helpful in evaluating the performance of a pre-referral system are:
academic variables for individual students; school wide indicators; surveys of teachers and parents
What is the "Maalox approach? and why is it beneficial?
Refers to using a provide quick prescription to a problem prior to doing expensive time-consuming diagnostic testing -- it is effective for the majority of problems, and less traumatic for the individual involved.
When estab lishing the intervention it is important to:
Have team members work directly in the classroom; Model the intended intervention
When working with parents the team should
use clear communication and srive for active involvement in the process
The pre-referral process is helpful under IDEA because
it is an effective way to check for lack of instruction
What is Curriculum Based Assessment?
A standardized set of procedures used to measure student performance in the areas of reading, math, and written expression
What is the difference between evaluation and measurement
Evaluation creates a value whereas measurement is taking action in order to determine the limits or extents of something with no direct tie to the worth or value of something
Optimally, Curriculum Based Evaluation should be combined with what?
An existing system of school based problem-solving and intervention
Why can Curriculum Based Evaluation become confusing?
state and federal regulations; disability theories; misinterpretation of the curriculum
When you make a system or a subsystem transparent, what must you do?
Make sure everyone knows what everyone else is doing
What is the first step in Curriculum Based Evaluation?
Evaluate and explain the problem
What is the prupose of the table tap (assisted monitoring)?
To help the stuedent learn to monitor their work independently
Why do you not want too many errors in an error sample
You don't want the student to guess on the answers, you want them to use the skills in question
What is the focus of Curriculum Based Evaluation?
Those skills that can be corrected through intervention strategies and instruction
What will the outcome be of Curriculum Based Evaluation?
Create a conclusion based on the data gathered; suggest an intervention for the teacher; follow up on the recommendations to make sure they are working, monitor the student's progress
A school Psycholgoists' goals in facilitating organizational change is to
optimize academic achievement of all students throughout schooling
Which of the following is NOT included in the three-tier model for implementing organizational change?
wait until a child is below grade-level before implating intervention program
School psychologists play a valuable role in educating the public, parent, and other educational professionals about what with regard to high-states testing?
the statistics underlying educational assessment
Which of the following modes is NOT used as a measurement of educational assessment
norm-referenced; portfolio-based; criterion-referenced; curriculum-based -- all are modes
Which is an alternative to the Lake Wobegon Mentality?
evaluation whether every student is achieving more at the end of the school year
What approach emphasizes normal variation among students and encourages alternative plans to follow in achieving their learning outcomes
systems-based assessment intervention
Proficient assessment and intervention plans for reading and writing require that professionals have a thorough understanding of what?
language development
What is dyslexia?
reading disorder that affects word recognition
When compared with reading disabilities, what type of disabilities is under-diagnosed and under-served?
written expression
Which is a neuropsychological sybtype of math disabilities according to Geary
difficulties with semantic retrieval of math facts; applciation of computational algorithms; visual-spatial understanding of number system
The public believes the primary goal of education is to develop ...
responsible citizens
Prior to the 20th century, how was self-discipline taught?
memorization of moral teachings from the Bible
During the early part of the 20th century, how was self-discipline taught?
classroom discussions and cooperative learning activities focusing on character education
In today's schools, how is self-disciploine taught?
remediation and response to behaviors
A comprehensive discipline plan focuses on
prevention, correction, remediation -- all of the above
The development of ____ entails self-directed inhibition of antisocial behavior, assuming responsibility for one's actions, understanding of right from wrong and an appreciation for the importance of cooperative relationships in the classroom and community.
Teachers must be ____ in their classroom discipline by setting high standards and expectations, enforcing rules and standards in a firm, fair, and consistent manner, and promoting autonomy by encouragin children's active participation in decisions regaridn behavior
What are the goals for correcting discipline problems?
Terminate the problem behavior if it is presently occurring; weaken or eliminate the change the studeent will engage in behavior again; replace the behavior with a more socially desirable behavior
____ refers to the use of an unpleasant consequence to decrease the likelihood that the behavior will occur again
postiv e behavior interventions includ
self-management; behaviorla momentum; school-home contingency notes
____ occurs when a school psychologist acquires knowledge about the triggers and functions of a student's problem behaviors.
functional behavioral assessment
Effective remedial programs are characterized by
parent or family involvement; sensitivity to developmental differences; broad based plan guided by theory and research
What are two fundamental truths about school violence?
early statements that schools are battle zones or experiencing an epidemic of violence are now recognized as being alarmist assertions that aren't reflective of day to day schools AND no matter how infrequent, school violence will always be a concern
What are the three tiers of organization as related to school violence?
community, district, building
What is the goal of the problem analysis step of violence prevention and intervention planning?
build a prevention plan based on the knowledge acquired through the needs assessment process
What is a tertiary intervention program?
The program targets students who are already manifesting significant problems interacting appropriately with others or who have an established history of violent behavior
What is the best practice for dealing with bullying?
a systems-wide approach that includes the bully, the victim, the school, the family, and the community
Prevention efforts at the secondary level primarily focus on what
behavioral self-control skills traning in a group or individually
What is the goal of tertiary prevention?
Maintaining current functioning strengths, with hopes for significant improvmeent of self-restraint skills
Which of these is true regarding school violence?
self-reported crime victimization at school doesn't vary by community urbanization but urban school reported more gang presents; since 1992 the number of school deaths has dropped by 50%; males and younger high school students report higher rates of fights and weapon possession -- all of the above
What percentage of U. S. students are estimated to be the victims of bullies?
The public's opinion of school violence is based on
incomplete information and availability heuristics
The two subtypes of ADHD include
inattention; hyperactive/Impulsive
ADHD is often comorbid with all of the following:
Conduct Disorder; achivement problems, social problems
____ are effect tools to increase communication and collaboration during the Evaluation phase?
Parent Daily Reports
Limitations of Rating Scales include all of the following:
rating scales represent informant's impressions of that behavior; rater may not remember exact behavior; rater may be biased
According to IDEA '97 educators must use which of the following when working with children with disabilities who exhibit behavior problems?
functional beahvior assessments; positive behavioral supports
Teachers usually provide the best information regarding
beahvior in various academic settings
T/F ADHD is the most prevalent disorder of children
Barkley attributes all symptoms of ADHD to a single phenomenon -
Behavioral disinhibition
T/F ADHD rarely impacts children outside of the classroom
What is the definitions of a naturalistic intervention design?
an intervention that identifies the lease intrusive, most robust intervention that will accomplish the goals of change within a natural setting
When guided by intervention design and a problem-solving model, those involved should emphasize the identification of ____ not ____.
problem situations; problem children
The end result of functional assessments using PASSKey procedures are collaboratively developed intervention ____ for resolving problem situations that are then tried out, refined, evaluaqted and ultimately faded
WShat is the definition of a keystone variable?
Keystone variables are those that, if changed are likely to positively impact the largest set of other significant behaviors, perceptions, or problem environments to most efficiently provide long term resolution of problem situations
Which of the following is not a factor that influences intervention adherence?
child's disability
One of the best-supported interventions for early literacy skills is ____.
reading to children
Acceptability refers to
judgements by the caregiver regarding resonableness: the appropriateness, fairness, intrusiveness, and normality of interventions
What does PASSKey stand for?
planned activity, strategic sampling, and keystone variable
As a best practice, intellectual assessment should be used when the results
are relevant to a specific referral question that other information does not address
Which of the following is not considered a best practice in intellectual assessment
using the same IQ test for all children at one's school
According to the chapter, most graduate programs, despite their claims, teach what more throughly that any other kind of assessment or intervention competency?
intellectual assessment measures
Finish the sentence: "School Psychology was born in the ____ of the IQ test".
What typs of validity do the authors propose is lacking in intellectual assessment because it does not lead to better treatments?
When intellectual assessment results are interpreted using scores such as IQs and percentil ranks, we are implying that what is appropriate for that individual?
The normative Group upon which the socres were based
What views are probably the most controversial and un resolved in regards to the use of intellectual assessments in school psychology?
allegations of bias against minority students
When one is working with an individual of the hearing impaired population, some variables to consider include ____.
the etiology of deafness, the range and diversity of hearing loss type, the degree of hearing loss
The majority of students who are hearing impaired have ____ parents.
Experts advise that ____ is (are) critical in the experience of a child who is hearing impaired.
early childhood identification and early intensive language intervention
Which of the following is not essential in a psychoeducational assessment of a child who is hearing impaired?
reading assessment
What is the best communication mode for a hearing impaired child?
depends on the child
What is an ideal seating arrangement in a classroom for a child who is hearing impaired?
horseshoe shape
Which of the following is a best practice approach for teacher instruction with children who are hearing impaired?
pausing in presentation of materials; sequential presentation of materials; monitoring turn taking
Children who are hearing impaired typically have ____ intellectual abilities and an ______ academic achievement.
average; below average
Some activities/tips that may enhance children who are hearing impaired's social interactions include all of the following except _____.
full-time mainstreaming
The job of the school psychologist in the life of a hearing impaired child includes the role _______.
advocate and consultant
One example of something that is not typically used as low vision equipment is:
book stands
Most visual losses are ____ for school-age children.
Retinal detachment can be caused by:
trauma to the head; diabetes
Visual memories are retained and used to facilitate acquisition of language concepts and other skills:
when onset is after the age of 5
Functional vision assessments can include information regarding which of the following
appropriate illumination
An ____ hjas special training in facilitating safe and independent travel for students who are visually impaired or blind.
orientation and mobility instructor
Frequent interaction with the environment is critical to reduce passivity and?
enhance learning
Family members may go through various stages of grieving when first informed and may benefit from _____
Student's who are visually impaired or blind struggle to finish their work on time. Something to consider is
teacher expectations, student's listening skills, student's organization skills
T/F A student's type of loss, degree of loss, and age at onset can have important implications for the educational planning
Post traumatic amnesia (PTA) is considered very severe when it lasts
longer than 7 days
Which of the following are factors affecting TBI Recovery?
extent of damage, age, site of injury
Which of the following is a physical deficit resulting from TBI?
loss of coordination
School psychologists can work as liasons between
rehab personnel and the school; TBI child and peers; parents and school -- all the above
To increase the accomplishment of IEP goals of the TBI child:
provide clear expectations
For a TBI child exhibiting a lack of initiating the strategy suggested is:
respond to the behavior the same way each time it occurs
Families of a TBI child can experience which of the following feelings/emotions:
anger, confusion, sorrow -- all of the above
Giving peers information about the extent of a child's TBI injuries can be helpful to the transition process when the TBI child is coming back to school. Which of the following must the school psychologist have permission from to release this information?
The educational definition of TBI excludes children who:
Are affected by hydrocephaly
Mishandling by caregiveers is a common cause of TBI injury of which age group?
Who is defined as a second language learner?
students from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds whose native language is not English; students who have limited English proficiency
What is LEP?
Limited English Proficiency
Spanish-speaking students make up what percentage of all second language learners?
What percentage of the student obdy will be made up of second language learners in 2026?
How do we achieve English language proficiency with second language learners
set high expectations for students; guide instruction when teaching students new theories, make teaching and learning collaborativbe; give ample opportunity for listening, speaking, reading and writing
What is the best way for second language learners to learn to communicate in English
first the develop basic interpersonal communciations skills (BICS), then they develop more involved cognitive/academic language proficiency skills
What is assimilation?
When ethnic groups choose to identify solely with the dominant culture
What group of newly immigrated students would you expect to be experiencing the greatest amount of acculturative stress
8th grade students
What are some of the effects of large-scale testing of second language learners?
Overrepresentation of seond langauge learners in sp ed programs; dire social and economic conseque3nces for students that are misdiagnosed and placed in minimal curricular programs; second langauge learners dropping out of school because of low test results and being placed into sp ed
What is the average length of time required to acquire Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) under the best classroom conditions?
five to seven years
Autism and other diagnoses on the Autism Spectrum are considered:
low incidence disabilities
In recent cases in which school districts have lost, procedural violations in the fololowing areas were noted:
parent participation; evaluation; IEP, placement, qualifications of school personnel
Autism is considered a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) which of the following is not a characteristic that is required for a diagnosis of PDD but may be present
IQ below 70
What is not considered part of the Spectrum for a Pervasive Developmental Disorder?
Severe speech delay
An acronym that is helpful in identifying assessment methods that could be used in assessing Autism is?
Despite its widespread use, which of the following Assessments lacks evidence of utility in educational decision making?
Effectibve programs for students iwth Autism may not include
Motor Lab
Which of the following IS NOT a treatement that lacks peer-reviewed studies to support its effectiveness?
descrete-trial instruction
Which of the following is critical when considering best practices in programming for students with Autism?
curricular activities that are developmentally appropriate; providing a structured environment; schedules and routines
When assessing problem behaviors with students with Autism it is recommended to use what type of approach?
Students with chronic behavioral issues comprise how much of the school population?
Students with chronic behavioral issues account for ____ of behavioral referrals to school administrators.
When does IDEA require FBA's for students with disabilities?
Whens tudents become the subject of school discipline proceedings
Which of the following is an important role school psychologists hsould play in preventing and responding to school violence?
to consult with school staff implementing social skills programs to teach peaceful ways to resolve conflicts.
Which is a suggested role of the school psychologist in sexuality education?
to provide counseling for students on issues related to sexuality as needed; to assist in developing, implementing and evaluating a sexuality education curriculum that is appropriate for the various student populations; to respond to those in the broader community who are concerned about sexuality education and its impact on student behavior
What group of Children experiences negative effects because of relocating?
children who exhibit problems before relocating
How many stages of family relocation are there?
How many months does the initial adjustment stage last
In what stage do families weigh the advantages and disadvantages of relocating?
anticipation and preparation
Children are vulnerable at certain ages to moving-related stresses. What group is vulnerable at this time
preschool and early adolescence
What type of community is it easier to adjust to after relocating?
a community similar to the old community
T/F All schools have intervention programs for children who relocate?
Popular belief is that relocating is ____ on children.
hard and stressful
T/F Academic achievement is affected when children relocatged?
What school personnel should the school psychologist work with to help children adjust to the relocation?