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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three components of acceptability of PPCT?
What is the "Tactical Acceptibility" component based on?
The most common types of resistance.
What is the "Medical Acceptibility" component based on?
Medical research that determined PPCT was okay medically?
What is the "Legal Acceptibility" component based on?
Legal research that determined PPCT was okay legally according to case law, et cetera?
Who developed PPCT?
Bruce K. Siddle
When was PPCT developed?
March 1985
What are the philosophies for force/control continuums?
Total Control Theory

One Plus One Theory
What are the mental states of combat?
Combat Anxiety (Before)

Survival Stress (During)

Combat Stress (After)
What is the sympathetic nervous system associated with?
Fight or flight
What is the parasympathetic nervous system associated with?
Rest and digest
What is the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems called?
What are the triggers for the sympathetic nervous system?
Objective Threat Perceptions
Objective Fear Perceptions
Physical Exhaustion
Startle Response
What is a good way to sum up Hick's law?
"Keep it simple"
"Less is best"
(In other words, the simpler and fewer techniques you use, the more likely you are to use them successfully?)
What are the "Combat Performance Variables"?
Mind Set
Motor Skill Selection
Nutrition and Hydration
Fitness and Energy
Belief Systems
What are some ways to reduce survival stress?
Confidence (Through good training, et cetera)
Motor Skill Selection
Tactical Breathing
Visualization Drills
Faith Factor
What is tactical breathing?
Inhaling for two seconds, and then exhaling for two seconds
What does tactical breathing do?
Lowers blood pressure and heart rate
What is the true effectiveness of any use of force system?
Defensibility in court
What is the total control theory?
Associated with a training system centered on the use of intermediate weapons
What does the "One Plus One" theory state?
Advocates that officers can use one level of force higher than the level of resistance used by the subject
What is the relationship between heart rate and performance called?
Inverted "U" Law
What heart rate range is best in a fight?
115-145 BPM
What are the types of motor skills?
How much can vision be reduced in the peripheral field during an incident?
Up to 70%
What are the PPCT "Principles of Controlling Resistive Behavior"?
Pain Compliance
Distraction Technique
Balance Displacement
Motor Dysfunction
What is pain compliance?
Use of pain to control resistive behavior
What is stunning?
The stimulation of overwhelming sensory input that is sudden, intense, and unexpected
How long does stunning last?
3-7 seconds
What is balance displacement?
The use of control techniques that displace balance through the principles of LEVERAGE
What do you use to displace balance?
What are the common types of resistance?
Resistance during handcuffing
Passive actions
Escort position resistance
Active aggression
What are the principles of escalation and de-escalation?
Objectively the reasonable amount of force that will control the subject?
If someone tries to stab you in the head with a knife, what level of force should you use against them?
Deadly Force
If someone uses active aggression against you, what level of force should you use against them?
Intermediate Weapons
If someone uses defensive resistance against you, what level of force should you use against them?
Hard Empty Hand Techniques
If someone uses mild defensive resistance against you, what level of force should you use against them?
Soft Empty Hand Techniques
If someone uses passive resistance against you, what level of force should you use against them?
Soft Empty Hand Techniques
If someone does not do what you tell them to do lawfully, what level of force should you use against them?
Verbal Direction
If a person is pacing back and forth staring at you and pounding their fist in their hand, what level of force should you use?
Officer Presence
What do you call it when someone doesn't do something you tell them to lawfully do?
Verbal Non-Compliance
What do you call it when someone is pacing back and forth, staring at you, and pounding their fist in their hand?
Psychological Intimidation
What is motor dysfunction?
Control striking techniques which over stimulate motor nerves, causing temporary muscle impairment
In an incident, how long does it take for the initial burst of energy to burn out?
10-15 Seconds
After 10-15 seconds, how much will their max output decrease by?
According to PPCT, what is the reactionary gap?
The minimum safe zone that an officer should maintain when dealing with others
According to PPCT, how big is the reactionary gap?
6 Feet
What is another name for the reactionary gap?
Safe Zone
What are the reactionary options?

What are the tactical positions?
Level I
Level II
Level II 1/2
Level III
What position is the field interview position?
Level I
What position is the escort position?
Level II 1/2
What are the tactical considerations of handcuffing?
Approach to contact

Control upon touch

Speed of application
When should you double lock handcuffs?
When it is tactically safe to do so
What is the main distraction technique?
Knee strike
What are the types of subjects?
Totally cooperative

Potentially uncooperative

Totally uncooperative
The totally uncooperative subject is the most dangerous, true or false?
False, the potentially uncooperative subject is the most dangerous
When can you handcuff?
Escape risk
Danger to self or others
Commission of a crime
What are the two most common types of resistance from the escort position?
Side arm curl

Straight arm lockout
If a subject resists with a side arm curl during the escort position, what technique do you use?
Transport wrist takedown
If a subject resists with a straight arm lockout during the escort position, what technique do you use?
Straight arm bar takedown
In PPCT, what are the methods of application?
Touch pressure

What is touch pressure?
Method used to create pain compliance
What is striking?
Method used to create motor dysfunction
What are the steps to apply touch pressure?
Stabilize head
Apply pressure/counter pressure
Apply using digital tip
Repeat loud verbal commands
Reduce pressure when command is followed
What technique(s) uses pressure/counter pressure?
Transport wrist takedown, et cetera?
What is the fluid shock wave?
A principle based on using motor nerve points as targets and using a method of striking that maximizes the transfer of kinetic energy
Motor equals?
A strike's efficiency is determined by what?


Energy duration
How many nerve pressure points have we been taught?
What are the categories of defensive counterstrikes?
Techniques used INSIDE the reactionary gap

Techniques used ON THE EDGE OF the reactionary gap
What level of force are defensive counterstrikes?
Hard empty hand techniques
Where is the infra-orbital pressure point?
Under the nose
What position should you always avoid?
What hormone is released during activation of the sympathetic nervous system?
At what heart rate do fine motor skills begin to deteriorate?
115 BPM
At what heart rate do complex motor skills begin to deteriorate?
145 BPM
What are some symptoms of parasympathetic nervous system "Backlash"?
Excessive bleeding
Symptoms of shock
Muscle tremors
What is the difference between the "Inverted U Law" and the "Catastrophe Theory"?
The "Inverted U Law" states that performance will gradually deteriorate as stress increases, but the "Catastrophe Theory" basically states that performance will plummet as stress increases...the bottom will fall out
What are the branches of the autonomic nervous system?

What triggers the backlash of the parasympathetic nervous system?
Threat perception diminished
Perception of injury
Trauma to vital system
Exhaustion (Aerobic and anaerobic)
When the sympathetic nervous system activates, what happens?
Adrenal activity
Vascular activity
Perceptual narrowing
What is "Combat Anxiety"?
Anticipation of danger
What is "Survival Stress"?
A deadly force threat perception that starts sympathetic nervous system discharge
What is "Combat Stress"?
After event symptoms that are a result of activation of the sympathetic nervous system
When the sympathetic nervous system is activated, what happens in simple terms?
Epinephrine is released, and it causes the heart rate and breathe to increase. Also, the epinephrine causes the vessels to shrink, and blood is diverted away from less important parts of the body to more important ones. Finally, hearing and attention are affected.
How long will a stun last?
3-7 seconds
How long will a distraction technique last?
3 seconds
How long will motor dysfunction last?
30 seconds to several minutes
What is the PPCT survival reaction time principle?
Formulate strategy
Motor initiation
Where is the hypoglossal?
Under the angle of the jaw
Where is the mandibular angle?
Under the ear lobe
Where is the jugular notch?
Under the Adam's apple, at the level of the collar bone
Where is the infra-orbital?
Base of the nose
Where is the brachial plexus?
Sides of the neck
Where is the median nerve?
Inside of the forearm at the base of the wrist, just above the heel of the hand
Where is the femoral nerve?
Middle of the inside of the thigh
Where is the common peroneal?
On the outside of the thigh, approximately six inches above the knee
Where is the tibial nerve?
Calf muscle
Where is the brachial plexus clavicle notch?
Not to be confused with the jugular notch, the clavicle notch is located behind the middle of the collar bone
Where is the brachial plexus tie-in?
In front of the shoulder joint, where the chest, bicep, and deltoid muscles meet
Where is the suprascapular nerve?
On the side of the neck, to the rear, where the trapezius muscles meet the neck
Where is the radial nerve?
In the middle of the forearm muscle
Where is the superficial peroneal?
Bottom of the shin, just above the instep
What are the handcuffing techniques we have learned?
Handcuffiing standing
Handcuffing kneeling
Iron wrist lock takedown
What escort positions have we learned?
Escort position
Escort position distraction (Knee)
Transport wrist lock takedown
Straight arm bar takedown
What touch pressure techniques have we learned?
Pressure points
What striking techniques have we learned?
Straight punch
Palm heel strike
Backhand brachial stun
Palm heel brachial stun
Outside forearm brachial stun
Inside forearm brachial stun
Knee strike
Front thrust kick
Angle kick (Roundhouse)
What blocking techniques have we learned?
Outside check
Outside check with radial stun