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20 Cards in this Set

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Pump-handle motion
The upper ribs move upward and forward. Axis(es) lying near the frontal plane.
Bucket-handle motion
The lower ribs move upward and laterally. Axis(es) approaching the sagital plane.
Kyphosis
"hunch back". Curvature of the upper (thoracic) spine. (Near neck)
Lordosis
Excessive inward curve of the spine (lumbar region). (Swayback). Closer to low back.
Breath specific exercise
The hundred.
Breathing warm up exercise.
Anterior Oblique System (AOS)
External oblique
Contralateral internal oblique
Contralateral adductors
Contributes to force closure of the pubic symphysis and sacroliac joint.
In some cases, the fibers of each of these muscles cross the pubic symphysis and blend with the fibers of the other muscle.
Posterior Oblique System (POS)
Latissimus dorsi
Thoracolumbar fascia
Contralateral gluteus maximus
Contributes to the force closure of the sacroiliac joint, and is a significan contributor to load transference through the pelvic girdle during rotational activities and during gait.
The fibers of these two muscles are directly in line with each other, and perpendicular to the sacroiliac joint, giving external support. (INVOLVED ALL OF THE TIME)
Fascia
a sheet or band of fibrous Connective tissue separating or binding together muscles and organs etc
Contralateral
Opposite side.
Deep Longitudinal System (DLS)
Erector spinae
Sacrotuberous ligament (& multifidus)
Biceps femoris
Peroneus longus
Anterior tibialis
Affected whenever the foot is on the ground.
Uses the thoracolumbar fascia and erector spinae muscles to transmit kinetic energy above the pelvis, while using the biceps femoris to communicate between the pelvis and the lower extremity. GREAT COMMUNICATOR.
Lateral System (LS)
Gluteus medius and minimus
Contralateral adductors
Contralateral quadratus lumborum
These muscles provide essential frontal plane stability. Although not directly involved in force closure of the SIJ, they are significant for the funciton of the pelvic girdle during standing and walking.
Force Couples (inner unit)
Axial Elongation and Core Control
Diaphram
Transverse Abdominus
Pelvic Floor
Multifidus
Force Couples
The Muscular Slings
(Andry Vleeming)
Anterior Oblique System (AOS)
Posterior Oblique System (POS)
Deep Longitudinal System (DLS)
Lateral System (LS)
Larger muscle groups and their fascial conections move our trunk and limbs to create our everyday functional movements.
As internal or external load is increased, so increases the demand for core control.
These musculo-fascial systems play a crucial role in movement as well as in providing stability and protection for the inner, stabilizing muscles and joints.
Force Couples in Breathing
Pelvic Floor
Transverse Abdominus
Diaphram
Serratus Posterior Superior and Inferior
Neutral Spine
Position of the spine in which every joint is in an optimal position to allow for equal distribution of fource through the entire structure.
Stability
The appropriate amount of stiffness for the anticipated load.
Panjabi's Model for Stability (1992)
For stability you need:
Motor control (Brain/feedback mechanisms)
Inert Structures (Bone/ligament/fascia/disc) and
Contractile structures (muscles)
Panjabi's model Motor control
(Neutral Zone)
A measure of spinal laxity in the vinicity of the neutral position.
Increase in neutral zone leads to pain by producing strain on the surrounding supportive passive tissues.
Musclular factors are essential components in maintaining neutral zone.
Multifidus is the MOST IMPORTANT factor in increaseing stability of the motion segment, providing greater than 2/3 of the stiffness increase in the L4-5 segment.
Panjabi's model Motor control
(normal organization)
Axial Elongation: provides an optimal environment for segmental movement of the spine and prevents compressive and shear forces that are thought to cause spine pathology.
Core Control: Inner Unit muscles engaged. "As much as necessary, as little as possible" as pertains to stiffness (Strength) and load
Muscular slings engaged if dictated by the movement.
Multifidus: Proprioception plays key role in spine stability. Lumbar tissues provide this feedback.
The deep intersegmental muscles of the spine have up to 6 times more muscle spindle fibers than their superficial counterparts.
Transvers Abdominus: Contributes to increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP)
TA works at submaximal levels during low-level activity. The TA should fire in anticipation of movement
Pelvic Floor: should work together with TA but does not have to.
Panjabi's model Motor control
(Faulty organization)
Inappropriate stiffness for the anticipated load
Neurological excitation: Over recruitment (guarding) of the global muscles and over anticipation of load
Neurological inhibition: Pain inhibition of intrinsic muscles and reciprocal inhibition caused by over-recruitment of antagonist.
Excessive stiffness vs. excessive movement: Movement takes the path of least resistance and increased degree of movement at most flexible segment.