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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
net diffusion of water across a permeable membrane
form channels across the cell membrane through which water molecules can diffuse
solution that causes a net influx of water into the cell
hypotonic solution
causes a net efflux of water from a cell
cause no net flux of water in or out of a cell
isotonic solution
if a cell appears opaque what happened
if a cell appears clear what happened
burst hemolysis
what is hemolysis
when a red blood cell bursts due to the concentration of outside solution
define blood
a mixture of cellular components suspended in fluid called plasma
name four things that blood is responsible for carrying
water, electrolytes, proteins, gases
why is it that blood can indicate physiological changes in the body
because it carries many things such as electrolytes, gases, water, proteins, nutrients, hormones
what is the response in blood typing called
when you put blood in blood typing test is the blood acting as the anitgen or the antibody
antigen. anti-A for example is what is added
what is used to perform blood cell counts
why does white blood have more area on a hemacytometer
there is less so more area is needed to search
definition: blood plasma without fibrinogen
blood serum
what does a high hematocrit tell you
dehydration, high erythropoietin, polycythemia
what does a low hematocrit tell you
anemia, blood loss, low RBC, bone marrow failure, malnutrtion
definition: a hemoprotein composed of glbin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color, functions primarily to transport oxygen formt he lungs tot he body tissues
what does high hemoglobin tell you
high RBC congentinal heart disease pulmonary disease
what does low hemoglobin tell you
anemia, low RBC, blood cell destruction, malnutrition. altitude
white blood cell

tells you infection, tissue damage, leukemia

tells you anemia, blood loss, hemolysis, erythropotein imbalance, bone marrow failure, heart disease
conditions such as hemophilia, cirrhosis, hepatitis, malabsorption of nutrients, vit K deficiency can be told by...
clotting time
why did we use goat anti rabbit IgG instead of rabbit antiIgg
rabbits wouldn't produce antibodies to themselves
what is an IgG
what does ELISA stand for
enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay
what are ELISA tests usually used for
anything that determiens abundance of various compounds found in blood serum including hormones like insulin testosterone and estrogen and infectious agents like AIDS or herpes
did the control in the ELISA test contain serum?
what is TBS
a buffer that creates a friendly environment for development
what is TBS gelatin
smoothes the cracks in the plate
where was the enzyme-linked part in our lab experimetns
the goat antirabbit IgG peroxidase in the antibody reaction
what does the color devlopment solution link onto
the enzyme of the enzyme link goat anti rabbit IgG peroxidase
does high transmittance mean there is a high or low conc
low conc
summarize the steps of the ELISA test
1. rabbit serum with antigens with highest conc in the A1 B1 and all 1 sections
2. buffer to let it develop
3. sit for 20 mins to let it bind and incubate
4. TBS gelatin to only show pointy antigen binding site
5. goat anti-rabbit IgG peroxidase is added for the antibody reaction
6. wait 20 mins to let the reaction go
7. TBS NP40 , TBS gelatin, distilled water were used for several washes
8. color development solution
any substance that can stimulate the prouction fo antibodies and combine specifically with them
any of numerous Y shaped protein molecules produced by B cells as primary immune defense each molecules and its clones having a unique bindign cite that binds to antigens
the part of a macrocolecule that is recognized by the immune system, specifically antibodies, B or T cells
the part of an antibody that recognizes the epitope
what two things can B cells differentiate into
plasma cells taht secrete soluble anitbodies
memory cells that allow the immune system to remember an antigen
can antibodies respond to more than one antigen?
what are the ways that anibodies actually contribute to immunity
prevent pathogens from entering cells
stimulate removal of pathogens by macrophages
trigger descrution of the pathogen by stimulating other immune response
defition: binding of the antibody and complement molecules marksthe microbe for ingetstion by phagocytes
antibodies bind to pathogens to link them together, causing them to ____
look up the picture in the lab lecture on ELISA
Ig_ is found in all body fluids and is 75-80% of antibodies
do we need to know IgA IgE etc?
where is the ELISA tray dark
goes 1dark to 6 light
a cell in the blood that transports oxygen and co2 to and from the tissues
erythrocyte or RBC
any of the vaios bloods cells that have a nucleus and cytoplasm and help protect the body from infection and disease