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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Which of the following is NOT a method of hormone action?

A) control of enzymatic reaction rates

B) control of ion or molecule transport across cell membranes

C) control of electrical signalling pathways

D) control of gene expression and protein synthesis

E) All are methods of hormone action

C) control of electrical signalling pathways

Typically, when steroid hormones bind to their receptors,

A)adenylyl cyclase is activated.

B)cyclic nucleotides are formed.

C)G proteins are inhibited.

D)gene transcription may increase or decrease. E) proteinkinases are activated.

D) gene transcription may increase or decrease.

Each of the following statements concerning peptide hormones is true except one. Identify the exception.

A) Peptide hormones are first synthesised as prohormones.

B) Prohormones can be activated before their release via post-translational modification.

C) Peptide hormones remain in circulation for relatively short periods of time.

D) Peptide hormones in the bloodstream are always bound to carrier proteins.

D) Peptide hormones in the bloodstream are always bound to carrier proteins.

Themost complex endocrine responses involve the

A)thyroid gland.


C)adrenal glands.


E) thymus

D) hypothalamus

Thepituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenalcortex is



The portions of a neuron that extend off of the roughly spherical cell body are usually collectively called

A) Protrusions.

B) Processes.

C) Prostheses.

D) Projections.

B) Processes

Information coming into the central nervous system is transmitted along ________ neurons.

A) afferent

B) sensory

C) efferent

D) afferent and sensory

E) sensory and efferent

D) afferent and sensory

The afferent and efferent axons together form the

A) central nervous system.

B) autonomic division system.

C) somatic motor division of the nervous system. D) Peripheral nervous system.

E) visceral nervous system

D) Peripheral nervous system

Exocrineglands, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscles are controlled by the

A)central nervous system.

B) autonomicnervous system.

C)somatic motor division.

D)peripheral nervous system.

E)enteric nervous system.

B) autonomic nervous system

Interneuronsare found

A)only in the brain.

B)only in the spinal cord.

C) only in theCNS.

D)throughout the nervous system.

E)only in spinal nerves

C) only in the CNS

Theregion where the axon terminal meets its target cell is called the

A)collateral.B)hillock.C) synapse.D)nerve.E)dendrites.

C) synapse

Clusters of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system are called

A) microglia. B) neuroglia. C) glia. D) ganglia. E) nodes.

D) ganglia

Myelinis formed by

A)axons only.

B)Schwann cells only.

C)oligodendrocytes only.

D) Schwann cells andoligodendrocytes

D) Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes

Whichof the following is the most common location where action potentials originate?

C) A)dendritesB)cell bodyC) axon hillockD)synaptic cleftE)synaptic bouton

C) axon hillock

Voltage-regulated channels are located

A) within the cytosol only.

B) in the membranes of dendrites only.

C) in the membranes of axons only.

D) on the neuron cell body only.

E) in the membranes of dendrites, in the membranes of axons, and on the neuron cell body.

E) in the membranes of dendrites, in the membranes of axons, and on the neuron cell body.

Actionpotentials are primarily associated with the membranes of

A)dendrites only.B)cell bodies only.C) axons only.D)dendrites and axons.E)cell bodies and axons

C) axons only

Cerebrospinalfluid is produced by the

A) choroid plexus.B) arachnoid villi.C) frontal sinuses.D) pia mater.E) ventricles

A) choroid plexus

The brain has a ________ (high or low?) demandfor oxygen, and receives about ________% of the total blood volume incirculation.



Cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in

A) propriospinal tracts. B) ventral root ganglia. C) ventral horns. D) dorsal horns. E) dorsal root ganglia.

E) dorsal root ganglia

The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is the

A) basal nuclei. B) suprachiasmatic nucleus. C) corpus callosum. D) hippocampus. E) gray "H."

C) corpus collosum

The most primitive region of the cerebrum is probably the A) limbic system. B) basal nuclei. C) corpus callosum. D) reticular system. E) pons.

A) limbic system

Which brain area is considered to be a key integrating centre for homoeostasis?

A) hypothalamus B) thalamus C) pituitary gland D) brain stem E) medulla

A) hypothalamus

An important structure in both learning and memory is the

A) cerebellum. B) pons. C) medulla. D) hippocampus. E) hypothalamus

D) hippocampus

Which of the following would bean adequate stimulus for a mechanoreceptor?

A) oxygenB)cell stretchC) photon of lightD) cold temperatureE) pH

B) cell stretch

With the exception of olfaction,all sensory pathways first travel to the ________, which acts as a relay andprocessing station.

A) cerebrumB)thalamusC) cerebellumD) hypothalamusE) medullaoblongata

B) thalamus

A receptor potential is

A) an action potential.B)a graded potential.C) the resting membrane potentialof a receptor cell.D) alwaysconverted to an action potential in sensory receptor cells

B) a graded potential

The two-point discrimination test

A) is used to determine clarity of vision. B) provides information about olfactory receptors. C) provides a measure of receptive field size for touch receptors. D) is used to test for hearing disorders. E) monitors the activity of taste buds.

C) provides a measure of receptive field size for touch receptors

A decrease in ones perception of a stimulus whose intensity has not changed due to higher neural inhibition is

A) habituation. B) convergence. C) divergence. D) adaptation.

A) habituation

Tonic receptors

A) are quick to adapt to a particular stimulus intensity.

B) slowly decrease the frequency of action potentials generated to a constant stimulus.

C) are attune to changes in a parameter, not the extent of that change.

D) will always decrease to the point where no action potentials are generated.

B) slowly decrease the frequency of action potentials generated to a constant stimulus.

Nociceptors are responsible forthe perception of

A) pain only.B) skin stretch only.C) itch only.D)pain and itch.E) pain and skinstretch

D) pain and itch

Gustatory cells that respond to sour via release of serotonin are called

A) type I taste cells. B) type II taste cells. C) type III taste cells. D) basal taste cells

C) type III taste cells

The primary purpose of the middle ear bony structures (malleus, incus and stapes) is to

A) equalise pressure in the middle ear.

B) amplify the vibration as it conducts to the cochlea.

C) dampen the vibration as it conducts to the cochlea.

D) transmit otitis media to the cochlea.

E) transduce the sound waves into vibration

B) amplify the vibration as it conducts to the cochlea.

The cilia of the hair cells of the semicircular canals are embedded in the

A) saccule. B) ampullae. C) cristae. D) utricle. E) cupula.

E) cupula