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 Displacement The distance from a fixed point along a particular direction Velocity The rate of change of displacement (m/s) Acceleration The rate of change of velocity (m/s2) Scalar quantity A quantity that has no direction eg mass Vector quantity A quantity that has direction and magnitude associated with it (eg velocity) Force Something that can cause acceleration (N) Friction A force that opposes the movement of one surface over another Momentum Mass × velocity (kgm/s) Conservation of momentum In any interaction with no external forces the total momentum before is equal to the total momentum after Newton's first Law of motion An object remains in a state of rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless an external force acts on it Newton's second law of motion The resultant force on an object is proportional to its rate of change of momentum Newton's third law of motion If A exerts a force on B then B exerts an equal and opposite force on A Weight The weight of a body is the force of gravity acting on it Newton's universal law of gravitation Density The mass per unit area (kg/m3) Pressure The force per unit area (Pa) Archimedes' Principle When a body is partially or wholly immersed in a fluid the upthrust is equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced Law of floatation The weight of floating body is equal to the weight of fluid displaced Moment Perpendicular distance × force Couple A system of forces which have a turning effect only and the resultant is zero Equilibrium When a body's acceleration is zero Law of Equilibrium 1 The sum of the forces acting on the body is zero Law of Equilibrium 2 The net total clockwise moment equals the net total clockwise moment Energy The ability to do work Principle of Conservation of energy Energy can neither be created nor destroyed merely converted from one form to another Work Force × distance moved Power Work done per second Watt One joule per second Efficiency Power in÷power out Heat The measure of energy (Joules) Temperature A measure of the hotness of a body (Kelvin) Specific Heat Capacity The amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1kg of that substance by 1 Kelvin Specific Latent Heat The heat energy needed to change the state of 1kg of a substance with no change in temperature Thermometric property A physical property that changes measurably with changing temperature Conduction The transfer of energy through a substance without the movement of the particles of the substance Convection The transfer of energy through a substance by the movement of the particles Radiation The movement of energy in straight lines from the surface of a hot body without the need for a medium to pass through Solar constant Amount of solar energy per second per 1m2 of area (Watts per m2) U-value The u-value of a building material is the amount of heat energy that will escape per second through 1m2 of the material for each 1K temperature difference across it Celsius Kelvin temperature - 273.15 Boyle's Law When a fixed mass of gas is kept at a constant temperature its pressure is inversely proportional to its volume Stationary wave A wave with no net transfer of energy formed by interference of two waves of equal frequencies and amplitudes moving in opposite directions Harmonics Frequencies which are whole number multiples of a fundamental frequency Resonance Transfer of energy between bodies with similar natural frequency Sound intensity Sound energy per second crossing each square metre of area (Watts per m2) Threshold of hearing The smallest intensity that can be heard by a human ear (1x10-12 W per m2) Threshold of pain Intensities above 1W/m2 cause pain and permanent damage Sound intensity level The change in sound intensity level is 1 Bel when the second sound intestinal is 10 times the first dB(A) scale dB except has been adapted to take into account of how the human ear responds differently to different frequencies The Doppler Effect The apparent change in frequency of a wave due to the relative motion between the source of the wave and the observer The first Law of reflection The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of refraction The second law of reflection The incident ray, the normal and the reflected ray are all in the same plane The first Law of refraction Sin i/sin r = the refractive index a constant The second law of refraction The incident ray the normal and the refracted ray all lie in the same plane Power of a lens 1/focal length in m Critical angle The angle of incidence in the denser medium for which the angle of refraction will be 90° Total internal reflection Occurs when the angle of incidence in the denser medium is bigger than the critical angle Transverse wave The vibrations are at right angles to the direction the particle travels in Longitudinal waves The vibrations are parallal to the direction in which the wave travels Wavelength The distance between two crests (m) Amplitude The max displacement from the baseline (m) Frequency The number of complete cycles of a wave passing a point per second (Hz) Period The time taken for a complete cycle of a wave (s) Wavequation C=¥f Reflection The rebounding of a wave/light off a surface Refraction The bending of a wave as it passes from one medium to next (n=c1/c2) Diffraction The spreading out of a wave in the space behind an obstacle or after going through an openingN¥=dsin0 Interference When two or more waves meet and combine to form a resultant wave Coherent sources Sources that are in phase and have the same frequency Polarisation This is when the vibrations of a wave are in one plane only: only happens with transverse waves Dispersion The separation out of white light into its constituent colours Primary colours Red green blue-produce white light Secondary colours Yellow cyan magenta-when primary colours are mixed in equal intensity Complementary colours A primary and secondary colour mixing to give white light Conductor A substance that allows charge to flow through it Insulator A substance that does not allow charge to flow through it Electric field A region where a charged particle experiences a force Electric field strength The force per unit charge (E=F/q) Potential difference Work done per unit charge (V=W/q) Emf The work done in bringing unit charge around a complete circuit (V) Capacitance The ratio of charge to potential difference (C=Q/V) Coulomb's law Electric current A flow of charge (A= 1 Coulomb per second) Resistance The ratio of voltage to current R=V/I Resistivity Ohm's Law The current flowing through a wire is proportional to the potential difference across itV=IR RCD Residual Current Device MCB Miniature Circuit Breaker Semiconductor Resistivity between that of a conductor and an insulator Intrinsic vs Extrinsic conduction Conduction in a pure vs doped semiconductor Thermionic emission Emission of electrons from the surface of hot metal Electron-Volt The amount of energy gained by an electron being accelerated across a potential difference of 1 Volt Photoelectric emission The emission of electrons from the surface of a metal when light of a suitable frequency falls on it Photon A packet of electromagnetic energy (energy=hf) Work function The minimum energy required by a photon to remove an electron from the surface of a metal by photoelectric emission (J or eV) Threshold frequency The minimum frequency required for photoemission to occur Einsteins photoelectric law Photon energy=work function +max kinetic energy of emitted electron X rays High frequency photons of electromagnetic radiation Atomic number Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element Isotopes Atoms that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers Radioactivity The decay of a nucleus of an atom with the emission of one or more types of radiation Activity The number of nuclei of a radioactive substance that is decaying per second Bequerel The unit of activity = one radioactive disintegration per second Law of radioactive decay The number of disintegrations per second is directly proportional to the number of nuclei present Half life The time taken for half of the nuclei present to decay Decay constant Nuclear fission The splitting of a large nucleus into two smaller nuclei with the emission of neutrons and large amounts of energy Chain reaction A self sustaining reaction where the release of one or more neutrons causes further fission Nuclear fusiin The joining together of two light nuclei to form a larger nucleus with the emission of a large amount of energy Leptons A point particle that does not experience the strong force Hadron A particle made of three quarks= proton neutron Meson A particle made of a quark and an anti quark (eg pion) Anti-matter A particle with the same mass as a particle but opposite charge Pair production A particle and it's anti particle are created from high energy (gamma-ray) photon (hf=2mc2) Pair annihilation A particle and an anti particle are converted into two equal photons of energy (travelling in opposite directions) (2hf=2mc2) Four forces in order of decreasing strength Strong nuclear forceElectromagneticWeak nuclearGravitational Thermistor A semiconductor whose resistance decreases rapidly with an increase in temperature Holes When an electron breaks free from a covalent bond it leaves behind a gap in the atom from whence it came. Intrinsic Conductor Conduction in a pure semiconductor with an equal number of holes moving from positive to negative and electrons moving in the opposite Parallax The apparent movement of an object relative to another due to the motion of an observer Magnification M=v/u Short sighted A short sighted cannot bring far away objects into an object fixed with concave lens Long sight Can't see up close objects fixed with convex lenses Interference When waves combine to create a resultant wave Pressure in a fluid P=pgh Cathode Rays Streams of high speed electrons moving from the cathode Kilowatt-Hour The amount of energy used by a 1000W appliance in one hour LDR Light Dependent Resistor is a semiconductor whose conductivity is increased when light shines on it Doping The adding of a small controlled amounts of certain impurities to a pure semiconductor to increase its conductivity N-type semiconductor One which the impurity added produces more free electrons available for conduction (eg phosphorus) P type semiconductor A semiconductor in which the impurity added produces extra hokes which are available for conduction (eg boron) Intrinsic conduction Conduction in a pure semiconductor due to electrons move from negative to positive and an equal number of holes move in an opposite direction Extrinsic conduction Increased conduction in a semiconductor due to the addition of impurities is called extrinsic conduction Junction voltage The P. D. that exists across a p-n junction caused by holes and electrons moving across the junction when it was formed is called the junction voltage Forward biased p-n junction Conducts current when positive terminal is connected to the P type Reverse biased p-n junction Doesn't conduct current Magnetic Field A region of space where magnetic forces can be felt in the direction of the force on the north pole if it were placed at that point Magnetic Field Line A line drawn in a magnetic field so that the tangent to it at any point Magentic Flux Density A vector whose magnitude is equal to the force that would be experienced by a conductor of length 1m carrying a current of 1 A at right angles to the field The Ampere The current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible cross section and placed 1m apart in a vacuum would produce a force of 2x10(-7) N per metre length Electromagnetic Induction Whenever the magnetic passing through a coil changes, an emf appears in the coil Emf Electromotive Force Faraday's Law The size of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux Lenz's Law The direction of an induced current is always such as to oppose the change producing it Electric Generator A device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy Mutual Induction When a changing magnetic field in one coil causes an induced emf to appear in a nearby coil Self induction Whenever the current passing through a coil changes, the magnetic field surrounding that coil changes. This changing magnetic field induces an emf in the coil that opposes the changing current (back emf) Transformer A transformer is a device used to change the value of alternating voltage