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111 Cards in this Set

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Biological Classification
In biology, the ordering of organisms into categoies, such as oders, families, and genera, to show evolutionalty relationships
A kingdom that animals are in. Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa.
The Phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates
Animals with segmented, bony spinal columns; includes fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor
Similarities between organismns based strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent
a diagram used in cladistics which shows ancestral relations between organisms, to represent the evolutionary tree of life
Biological Species Concept
A depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductilvely isolated from other such groups
A group of closely related species
ne of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. It is defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
In animals, it means development of the embryo inside the body of the mother, eventually leading to live birth (as opposed to laying eggs). In plants, it means reproduction via embryos, such as spores or buds, that develop from the outset without interruption (as opposed to germinating externally from a seed).
refers to animals which possess more than a single tooth morphology.
able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells
International Code of Zoolofical Nomenclature
Members of a suborder of Primates, the Prosimii. Traditionally, the suborder included lemurs, lorises and tarsiers
Members of a suborder of Primatesm the Anthropoidea. Traditionally, the suborder includes monkeys, apes, an humans
Specialized [Function]
unknown/could not find
Scientists who study the evolution, anatomy, and behavior of nonhuman primates.
The form (shape/size) of anatomical structures; can also refer to the entire organism
animals living in trees
Adaptive Niche
An organism's entire way of life; where it lives, what it eats, how it gets food, how it avoids predatos, and so on
Mental Capacity; ability to learn, reason, or comprehend and interpret information, facts, relationships, and meanings; the capacity to solve problems, whether through the application of previously acquired knowledge or through insight
Arboreal Hypothesis
points out that animals such as squirrels are also arboreal, yet they haven't evolved primate-like adaptions such as prehensile hands or forward facing eyes
the median line or median plane of the body or some part of the body of an animal.
a point or pointed edge; a point, projection, or elevation, as on the crown of a tooth
Using all four libs ti support the body during locomotion; the basic mammilian (and primate) form of locomotion
constitute a genus of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.
a form of locomotion used by some primates; the animal suspends itself from a branch or other hand-hold and moves alternatevly swinging from one forelimb to the other; also called arm swinging
The moist, hairless pad at the end of the nose seen in most mammalian species. It enhances enhances an animal's ability to smell
a family that the Platyrrhines have traditionally been divided into along with Cebidae
a family that the Platyrrhines have traditionally been divided into along with Callitrichidae
Ischial Callosities
Patches of tough, hard skin on the buttocks of Old World monkeys and chimpanzees
All Old World Monkeys are placed in one taxonomic family, ________.
The subfamily of Old World Monkeys that include baboons, macaques, and guenons
Common name for memvers of the subfamily of Old World monkeys that includes the African colobus monkets and Asian langurs
Sexual Dimorphism
Differences in Physical Characteristics between males and females of the same species. For example, humans are slightly sexually dimorphic for body size, with maes being taller, on average, than females of the same population
comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. These cycles start after puberty in sexually mature females and are interrupted by anestrous phases or pregnancies. Typically continue until death.
The formal designation for the superfamily of anthropoids that incudes apes and humans
The superfamily Hominoideaa includes the so-called lesser apes of this family.
they are referred to as the "great apes". This family contains 4 species
Having a diet composed primarily of fruit
Natal Group
The group in which animals are born and raised.
Primate Characteristics
Color vision, bony structures, post orbital, enclosed eye sockets, (however some do) nails, opposibe thumbs, steroscopic vision, color vision, ect.
Limbs and Locomotion
-A tendency toward an erect posture
- A flexible generalized limb structure allows most primates to practice various locomotor behaviors
-hands and feet with a high degree of prehensility
Erect Posture
It is a derieved trait that all primares show to some degree. It's variously associated with sitting, leaping, standing, and occasionally, bipedal walking
This is an ancestral trait that primates have retained some bonans and certain abilitys that have been lost in more specialized animals. They are not restricted to one form of movement.
Grasping, as by the hands and feet of primates
the condition of having five digits (fingers or toes) on a limb
a horn-like envelop covering the dorsal aspect of the terminal phalanges of fingers and toes
-All prosimians posses a grooming claw on one digit
Opposable Thumb
Most primares are capable of moving the thumb so that it opposes or comes in contact with the second digit, or the palm of the hand
Tactile Pads
enriched with the sensory neerve fibers at the ends of digits. Enhances the sense of touch
Diet and Teeth
-Lack of Diertart Specialization
-Generalized Dentition
Having a diet consisting of many food types
Generalized Dentition
The teeth aren't specialized for processing only one type of food, a characteristic related to a general lack of dietary specialization
Dental Formula
number and types of teeth on each half of the jaw.
-right/left maxilla
-right/left mandible
Tool Making
Unknown/Could not find
Senses and Brain
Primates rely heavily on vision and less on olfaction, especially when compared to other mammals. This emphasis is reflected in evolutionarychanges in the skull, eyes, and brain
Active during the day
Active during the night
Color Vision
Characteristic of all diurnal primates
Stereoscopic Vision
The ability to percieve objects in
Binocular Vision
Vision characterized by overlapping visual fields provided by forward-facing eyes.
-Essential to depth perception
Bilaterality of Vision
unknown/cannot find
Two halves of the cerebrum that are connected by a dense mass of fibers.
3-D Vision
The capacity for stereoscopic vision depends on each hemishpere of the brain recieving visual information from both eyes and from overlapping visual fields
The sense of smell
General trend among placental mammals, but especially true of primates. In primates, this expansion is most evident in the visual and association areas of the neocortex
Matuaration, Learning, and Behavior
-A more efficient means of fetal nourishment, longer periods of gestation, reduced numbers of offspring
-greater dependence on flexible, learned behavior
-Tendency to live in Social groups and permenant association of adult males within the group
-The tendency to diurnal activity patterns
Learned Behavior
correlated with delayed maturation and subsequently longer periods of infant and child dependency on at least one parent
Except for some nocturnal species, primates tend to associate with other individuals.
Threat Yawns
Unknown/Could not find
Unknown/Could not find
Matt Cartmill
physical anthropologist & anatomist at Boston University, proposed a "Visual Predation Hypothesis"
Visual Predation Hypothesis
argues that ancestral primates were insectivorous predators resembling tarsiers, subject to the same selection pressure for frontal vision as other predatory species. Cartmill also uses this hypothesis to account for the specialization of primate hands, which he suggests became adapted for grasping prey, somewhat like the way raptors employ their talons
Lemurs, Lorises and Tarsiers
-large-eyed arboreal prosimian having foxy faces and long furry tail
- a primitive family of primates, confined to the island of Madagascar.
-Any of several small, slow-moving primates, of the family Lorisidae, found in India and southeast Asia
Three species restricted to island areas in SE Asia. They live in a wide range of habitats. They are nocturnal insectivores, and leap onto prey from branches and shrubs. They form pair bonds, with the social unit being the mated pair and offspring
New World Monkeys
found in a wide range of arboreal enviroments throughout most forested area in Southern Mexico and Central and South America. They exhibit a wide range of size, diet, and ecological adaptions
Old World Monkies
they are the most widely distributed of all living primates, except for humans.
-a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini
Lesser Apes
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae (pronounced /ˌhaɪlɵˈbeɪtɨdiː/). The family is divided into four genera based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates (44), Hoolock (38), Nomascus (52), and Symphalangus (50).
Greater Apes
Orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos
Diane Fossey
an American zoologist who undertook an extensive study of gorilla groups over a period of 18 years.
Anything organisms do that involves action in response to internal or external stimuli. The response of an individual, group or species to its enviroment.
Free Ranging
Pertaining to non-captive animals living in their natural habitat. Idealy, the behavior of wild study groups would be free of human influence
Social Structure
The composition, size, sex ratio of a group of animals. Result of natural selection in specific habitats
Behavior Ecology
The study of the evolution of behaviors, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection
Remaining in one's natal group or home range as an adult
Behaviors and behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection to increase individual reproductive fitness
Living in the same area; pertaining to two or more species whose habitats partly or largerly overlap
Home Range
Total area exploited by an animal or social group
Members of the same species
Dominance Hierarchies
Systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another
Any act that conveys information in the form of a message to another individual.
Pertaining to physiological responses not under voluntary control.
Sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states.
Pertaining to amicable associations between individuals. These include grooming, reinforce social bonds, and promote group cohesion
Picking through gur to remove dirt, parasites, and other material that may be present.
Reproductive Strategies
The complex of behavioral patterns that contributes to individual reproductive success. The behaviors need not be deliberate, and they often vary considerably between males and females
Pertain to an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring, in whom they invest increased parental care
Pertaining to an adaptive stategy that emphasizes relitively lage numbers of offspring and reduced parental care
Sexual Selection
A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex withing a species. It is th result of competition from mates, and leads to sexual dimorphism
A mating sytem wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male, with whome she mates
A common behavior in many primate species whereby individuals other than the parent(s) hold, carry, and in general, interact with infants
Lovejoy's Hypothesis
full bipedalism developed in his response to the male's need to proviion female consurt since males hunted some distnces from their living area, there was a necessity for the male to be able to carry food long distances which was facilitated by walking upright
Baboon Model
-Troops (10 - 200 animals)
-Home Range (area they live in/do not defend it)
-Foraging (3-4 miles)
-Cooperative Hunting
-Dominance Heirarchy (female/male)
Describe a biological species and explain why the concept is important.
In Biology, Species are a group of individuals that can produce fertile offspring. This is important because without this concept, we would not be able to see that there are different populations of the same species. We would not be able to correctly classified
Identify the characteristics of mammals and the differences between the three types of
mammals (monotremes, marsupial and placental).
members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterized by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young
-Protothera = egg laying mammal, has spines
-Metatheria/Marsupials = have pouches
-Placental Mammals = birth of fully developed infants
Explain the Arboreal Hypothesis.
Animals adapting to tree life. They found food such as leaves, fruits, insects, and small mammals, which caused their omnivory. This is why primates have generalized dentition
Identify the basic differences between prosimians, new and old world monkeys, apes
and humans.
-eyes placed more to the side of face
-shorter gestation and maturation period
-dental comb
New World Monkey
- claws instead of nails
gave birth to twins
-locomotion is quadrapedal
Old World Monkey
- arboreal, terestrial and semi brachiation quadrapedalism
-sexual dimorphism
-"leaf - eating"
-more complex behavior
-larger body size
-absense of a tall
-increased period of infant development
What is Lovejoy’s Hypothesis? Definition it and explain why it would be an “evolutionary Advantage? Include the ideas of pair bonding, family and home social organization.
full bipedalism developed in his response to the male's need to proviion female consurt since males hunted some distnces from their living area, there was a necessity for the male to be able to carry food long distances which was facilitated by walking upright.