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110 Cards in this Set

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(1) Digestion

mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods

(2) Absorption

transfer of substances from gastrointestinal (GI) tract to extracellular fluid (ECF)

(3) Secretion

Transfer of water/ions from ECF to GI tract; also release of products of GI epithelial cells

(4) Motility

movement of material through GI tract via smooth muscle contractions (mostly)

digestive tract

(basic 3 facts)

1. one long tube

2. muscular walls lined with epithelium

3. skeletal muscle sphincters close off each end


(oral cavity)

mechanical and chemical breakdown of food (digestion) begins here via:

1. mastication

2. saliva



common path-way for air and food/liquid:

1. air to larynx, trachea

2. food/liquid to esophagus


muscular tube with both skeletal and smooth muscle; takes food to stomach


1.mechanical digestion

--smooth muscle contraction

2. chemical digestion

--gastric secretions

3. food + gastric secretions = Chyme

pyloric sphincter

-releases chyme into small intestines

-controls rate of food released for digestion and absorption

small intestines

1. primary site of digestion (chemical)

2. primary site of absorption

--nutrients, H2o, vitamins, minerals

3 major regions of small intestines

1. Duodenum (1ft)

2. Jejunum (3-4ft)

3. Ileum (4-5ft)


1. chyme mixed with pancreatic secretions

--digestive enzymes, bicarbonate

2. chyme also mixed with bile


1. digestions/absorption usually done here


1. continued digestion/absorption capability;

2. transport to colon

(1) Mucosa layer

(inner most)


1. epithelial cells

2. immune cells (GALT)

3. thin layer of smooth muscle


1. villi

2. contraction of smooth muscle


1. enzyme, mucus (goblet cells) into lumen

Epithelial somatic stem cells

1. produce new epithelium

2. susceptible to cancer

-Cell-to-cell junctions are leakier here than in stomach

-leakiness can be regulated

(2) Submucosa

1. connective tissue layer

2. provides elasticity

3. large blood & lymph vessels to pick up what has been absorbed

4. major nerve network

--part of enteric nervous system

--regulates digestion

(3) external muscle

1. outer wall of GI tract

2. responsible for motility

3. Two layers of smooth muscle:

a. circular

---contraction decreases lumen diameter

b. longitudinal

--- contraction shortens GI tract

4. the second nerve network of enteric nervous system

(4) serosa

1. outer covering of the entire digestive tract

2. connective tissue

3. lubrication against other organs

large intestine


1. digestion and absorption are mostly complete

2. recovery (absorption) of remaining water

--turns chyme into a semisolid mixture of indigestible material called feces

ileocecal sphincter

regulates chyme flow from small to large intestine

migrating motor complex

1. between meals

2. series of contractions from stomach to large intestine

3. moves food remnants and bacteria from upper GI tract into large intestine


1. after meal

2. waves of contraction from section to section

3. circular muscle contracts just behind a bolus of food

segmental contractions

1. short segments contract and relax

2. mixes food and keeps it in contact with epithelium

Rectum -> anus

1. internal anal sphincter: smooth muscle

2. external anal sphincter

salivary glands

1. paired glands (6 total) --> major glands

2. secrete saliva: h2o+enzymes+mucus

--immune function (IgA)

3. primarily parasympathetic control, some sympathetic control

4. stress reduces salivary production


1. both an endocrine & exocrine gland

a. exocrine portion: secretes enzymes into small intestine

b. endocrine portion: produce hormones

acinar cells


1. exocrine

2. release secretions into ducts that lead into the pancreatic duct

islet cells


1. endocrine

2. make hormones e.g. insuline

3. have a vascular supply (capillaries)


1. bile secretion (stored in gallbaldder)

2. metabolism of nutrients

3. removal of old RBCs and bacteria from blood

4. breakdown of toxins

5. plasma protein synthesis

6. activation/breakdown of hormones


1. helps digest fats

2. ____ breaks down blobs

3. lipase then digests the smaller blobs

4. co-lipase gets between ____ molecules to let lipase in to reach fat

5. gallbladder stores ____

portal system

moves absorbed nutrients to the liver:

1. capillaries in digestive tract

2. hepatic portal vein

3. liver

capillaries in liver do what 3 things?

1. remove toxic compounds

2. break down some molecules

3. simply pass on others

haptic vein goes to were?

the vena cava

Digestive systems defenses

1. digestive enzymes

2. mucus

3. acid

4. Lymphoid tissue (GALT)

5. Diarrhea

6. Vomiting


pathological state in which intestinal fluid absorption is disrupted, resulting in watery feces

Psychosomatic diarrhea

stress induced, due to an increased intestinal motility

Osmotic diarrhea

when unabsorbed solutes prevent water absorption (e.g. lactose, olestra, laxatives)

Secretory diarrhea

pathogen-induced; adaptive unless prolonged

1. 4million people worldwide die each year

2. 200,000 kids hospitalized in U.S. each year


1. =emesis

2. protective

sensory inputs that cause emesis (3)

1. psychological

2. chemoreceptors detect pathogens in GI tract

3. disturbed equilibrium (e.g.) motion sickness

Medulla oblongata (brainstem) initiates what? (3)

1. muscle contractions from small intestines upwards (reverse peristalsis)

2. abdominal muscles contract

3. stomach relaxes, forces contents into esophagus and out mouth

Enteric Nervous System

1. nervous + endocrine system

2. autonomic nervous system = sympathetic, parasympathetic,

enteric nervous system characteristics (4)

1. Mostly independent

2. in the GI tract

3. regulates motility, secretions of digestive enzymes and gastric acid

4. does the actual work of digestion

GI tract regulations (3)

1. Long reflexes

a. sight, smell, sound, though of food = stimulus

b. prep for meal: saliva and gastric acid production

2. Emotions

a. butterflies in your stomach

b. fight-or-flight reactions

3. Taste receptors in gut

a. endocrine and exocrine responses differ for different foods

b. G-protein-coupled receptors that are found in taste buds are also found in some epithelial cells in gut

hyena reproductive tract morphology

1. Enlarged clitoris - "peniform clitoris"

2. Due to high androgen exposure during development

3. Hanging clitoris is a social signal

4. A lot of females die during birth

Sequential Hermaphroditism

Are able to change sex

1. clownfish are always born male first

2. if social environment needs it, a male will change into a female

True hermaphrodite

have both sex organs

1. marine flatworms

2. engage in "penis-fencing"

Male Gonads

testes (singular = testis)


1. full of tubes -- seminiferous tubule

2. As sperm gets closer to lumen, the sperm in more mature by sertoli cells

3. Androgen (testosterone) production by Interstitial (leydig) cells


1. houses testes external to body cavity at slightly lower temperature than body temp

2. necessary form sperm production

Dartos & Cremaster muscles

can bring the testes closer or further away from the body


site of final sperm maturation

vas deferens

joins urethra via ejaculatory duct in prostate gland

Reproductive function of penis

1. deposit sperm into female reproductive tract

2. normally flaccid; accomplishes penetration via erection

What causes erection reflex?

1. Increase in parasympathetic innervation to penis

2. artery/arteriole dilation

3. increased blood volume in erectile tissue

4. physical compression of veins

5. erection

Components of Semen (8)

1. sperm: gametes

2. mucus: lubricant

3. water: provide liquid medium

4. buffers: neutralize acidity of vag

5. nutrients: nourish sperm

6. enzymes: clot semen in vagina, then liquify

7. zinc

8. prostaglandins: may aid sperm transport


1. ~70-80% of males worldwide are UNcircumcised

2. performed for religious/cultural reasons

3. In US, current circumcision rate <50%

4. historically done to reduce amount of masturbation

Female reproductive phys characteristics

1. cyclic changes in activity (menstrual cycle),

2. restricted time periods of fertility (related to ovulation)

3. limited gamete (ege) production (~400 eggs ovulated)

4. capacity for pregnancy, birth

female gonad

ovary (plural = ovaries)


each contains a single ovum (plural = ova) or egg (gamete)

Granulosa cells

gamete development

Theca cells

produce androgens; converted to estrogen by granulosa cells

uterine tubes

(fallopian tubes, oviducts)

1. receive ovulated egg from ovary

2. site of fertilization

3. connected to uterus



1. hollow, muscular, extensible organ

2. site of implantation (usually)

3. houses developing embryo

Ectopic pregnancy

1. implantation outside of the uterus

2. ~1 in 75 conceptions; almost never viable


1. connects uterus to vagina

2. contains endocervical glands that secrete mucus - protective function

3. mucus -- variable across menstrual cycle --> usually thick & acidic, but becomes thinner, more basic around ovulation


1. canal that conncects external genitalia to cervix of uterus

2. lining coated in acidic mucous - also protective

3. receives penis during copulation (intercourse)

4. serves as birth canal

labia majora/minora

outer, inner skin folds

clitoris, clitoral hood (prepuce)

erectile tissue, sensory nerves


region enclosed by labia minora

vestibular glands

on either side of opening to vagina; lubrication (bartholin's glands)


released at beginning in puberty

male (1) excitement

1. erotic stimuli (psychological and/or physical)

2. penile erection (parasympathetic NS)

male (2) plateau

1. increasing blood pressure, HR, respiratory rate, pleasurable sensations

male (3) orgasm

1. rhythmic muscular contractions that produce ejaculation:

--expulsion of semen (sperm + seminal fluid) out of penis

2. sympathetic NS

*average sperm count = ~100 million sperm/mL

male (4) resolution

1. relaxation (refractory period for erection/ejaculation)


1. follicle secretes collagenase

2. follicle/ovarian wall dissolved

3. triggers inflammatory response

4. leads to rupture


1. shedding of uterine lining in absence of implantation

2. d1 = start of ___; ~d14 = ovulation

3. driven by hormonal changes from hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovary

4. repeats in absences of pregnancy


initial onset of menstruation (reproductive competence)


permanent cessation of menstruation

what is the trigger for ovulation?

the LH surge

proliferative phase

1. regrowth of endometrial tissue in preparation for potential pregnancy; in response to estrogen

secretory phase

1. uterine secretions of fluids rich in glycogen (energy for developing embryo;

2. late secretory phase --> cervical plug: maintained by estrogen and progesterone


(menstrual phase)

1. shedding of uterine lining due to decline of estrogen and progesterone ("period")

2. 3-7 days

3. 75 mL

4. plasmin

female (1) excitement

1. erotic stimuli (psychological and/or physical)

2. vaginal lubrication

3. clitoral tissue erection (parasympathetic NS)

female (2) plateau

1. increasing blood pressure

2. HR

3. respiratory rate

4. pleasurable sensations

female (3) orgasm

1. rhythmic muscular contractions of vagina and uterus

2. NOT necessary for conception, sympathetic NS

female (4) resolution

1. relaxation

sperm capacitation

1. necessary for fertilization - occurs in female tract

acrosomal reaction

1. acrosome content is released to get to egg membrane

cortical reaction

1. as soon as a sperm binds, it prevents other sperm from binding to egg

2. prevents polyspermy


1. ovulation

2. day 1. fertilization

3. days 2-4. cell division

4. days 4-5. blastocyst reaches uterus

5. days 5-9. blastocyst implants


1. fused egg & sperm

2. totipotent prior to implantation (total potential)

3. inner cell mass is pluripotent

How to prevent menses?

1. placenta keeps corpus luteum from degeneration via hCG

--continued progesterone, estrogen, inhibin prodcution

2. After 2 moths, corpus luteum degenerates, and placenta makes its own progesterone to prevent menses

3. hCG peaks at ~3 months then slowly diminishes

The Placenta

1. dense vascular supplies

2. needed for hormone production

3. nutrient/wast transfer

4. continues to grow during pregnancy (~8" diameter at birth)



1. initial secretion

2. low volume, low fat, low Ca+

3. High proteins, carbs

4. Maternal antibodies

5. stimulates GI tract (mild laxative)



1. High fat

2. High lactose (also stimulates gut bacteria colonization & proliferation)

3. High Ca++

lactation pathway


1. mechanoreceptors in breasts stimulate CNS of hypothalamus inhibits an inhibitor PIH (prolactin inhibitor hormone) (dope)

2. goes to anterior pituitary gland

3. causes prolactin increase; stimulates milk production

1. stimulates hypothalamus to produce oxytocin in posterior pituitary

2. smooth muscle contraction

3. milk ejection



1. inhibit GnRH (therefor no FSH)

2. mimics pregnancy so no new follicles will be produced



1. Thickens cervical mucus and prevents sperm movement

1. genital tubercles


forms head of penis

2. urethral folds and grooves


forms shaft of penis

3. labloscrotal swellings


forms shafts of penis and scrotum

1. genital tubercles


forms clitoris

2. urethral folds and grooves


1. form labia minora

2. opening of vagina

3. urethra

3. labioscrotal swellings


forms labia majora

what makes a male a male in the womb?

testosterone goes to DHT causes development of male external genitalia

development of internal organs


1. cortex: regresses

2. medulla: forms testis

3. wolfman duct: forms tubes of testicles; epididymis, vas defenaus, seminal vessicles

4. mollerian duct: regresses

development of internal organs


1. cortex: forms ovary

2. medulla: regresses

3. wolfman duct: regresses

4. mollerian duct: becomes fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper half of vag