• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

1. arguments for the existence of god

cosmological argument

1. everything in the universe has a cause

2. there must be a first cause

3. infinite regress is impossible

4. such a cause must be an infinite and necessary being

Thomas Aquinas

The Five Ways

-a posteriori

-cosmological argument

1. Argument from Change (motion & the unmoved mover)

2. Argument from Causation (must be a first cause)

3. Argument from Contingency (there must be a necessary being)

4. Argument from Degrees of Excellence (god is the model for comparison)

5. Argument from Harmony (divine designer)

William L. Craig

The Kalam Argument

-cosmological argument

Premise 1: Whatever begins to exist has a cause

Premise 2: The universe began to exist

Conclusion: Therefore, the universe has a cause

Paul Edwards

A Critique of the Cosmological Argument

-does not prove that the first cause is all powerful or all good

-against the premise that an infinite series of causes is impossible

-The Five Eskimos

-Eisenhower's victory

Teleological (Design) Argument

-an argument from analogy

1. human artifacts are product of intelligent design

2. the universe resembles human artifacts

3. therefore, the universe is (probably) a product of intelligent design

4. but the universe is more complex and vast

5. therefore, there is probably a vastly intelligent designer

William Paley

Teleological Argument

-the watch and the watchmaker

-has a maker, a purpose, a design, construction

-"The consciousness of knowing little need not beget a distrust of that which he does know"

David Hume

A Critique of the Teleological Argument

- weak analogy and fallacy of composition

1. the universe is not like human design

2. the TA fails because we have no other universe to compare

3. we should infer an anthropomorphic designer

4. the universe might be a result of chance

5. much disorder exists

Ontological Argument

deduce the existence of god from the very concept of god along with certain other necessary truths

St. Anselm

Ontological Argument

1. god, by definition, is a being than which nothing greater can be conceived

2. if god exists only in our minds, there must be a being greater than god (that exists in reality)

3. this leads to a contradiction: a being greater than god is impossible

4. therefore god must exist in reality

William Rowe

An Analysis of the Ontological Argument

1. Guanilo's criticism (the island)

2. Kant's criticism - "existence is not a predicate" (begging the question: assumes the point it's trying to prove)

3. "Anselm's argument cannot be a successful proof unless its premises are really known to be true" (how he defines "god" etc.)

2. The Problem of Evil

"How could a good god permit evil?"

Fyodor Dostoevsky

Why is there Evil?

-The Paradox

1. god is all-powerful (& all-knowing)

2. god is all loving (& perfectly good)

3. evil exists

-Inconsistent Triad

1. if god exists, there would be no evil

2. there is evil

3. therefore, god doesn't exist

-responses: free-will response, theodicy

B.C. Johnson

Why doesn't god intervene to prevent evil?

-the inconsistent triad proves god doesn't exist

-why is god let off the hook, but not humans?

-if we make things better, god will make them worse to help us develop (sarcasm)

-argument from evil

John Hick

Why God Allows Evil

-moral evil vs. non-moral evil

-the purpose of non-moral evil: it's soul-making and helps spiritual development

-this is the best of all possible worlds (the paradise state = no development)

3. are faith and reason compatible?

Blaise Pascal

Pascal's Wager

-cost-benefit ratio

-believe in god: nothing to lose and everything to gain

-faith and logic are compatible

W.K. Clifford

The Ethics of Belief

-it's unethical to hold to any belief without sufficient reason

-faith and logic are not compatible

Alvin Plantinga

Religious Belief without Evidence

Justified beliefs

1. self-evident

2. incorrigible (impossible to not believe)

3. evident to the senses

-beliefs sometimes aren't within a person's control


1. it isirrational or unreasonable to accept theisticbelief without sufficient evidence

2. there is not sufficient evidence for belief inGod
-one has no rational obligation to support one's belief in God with evidence

-logic faith are compatible

Søren Kierkegaard

Faith and Truth

-faith transcends reason

-without risk, there is no faith

-Fideism: exclusive or basicreliance upon faith alone
- truths of a certainkind can be grasped only by foregoingrational inquiry and relying solely onfaith

-the knower is an existing subject when discovering truth

Leap of Faith

1. aesthetic stage

2. ethical stage

3. religious stage