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123 Cards in this Set

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Goal of behaviorism

a functional analysis that maps out exactly how behavior is a function of the environmental stimulus

3 fundamental ideas of behaviorism

empiricism, associationism, and hedonism

empricism

the idea that all knowledge comes from experience

associationism

the claim that any two things, including ideas, become mentally associated as one if they are repeatedly experienced close together in time

hedonism

Provides an answer for why people do what they do (motivation).




Claims that people learn for two reasons: to seek pleasure or to avoid pain.

operant conditioning

behaviors associated with good consequences (reinforcement) are repeated; behaviors associated with bad consequences (punishment) are abandoned.

(operant conditioning)


reinforcement

positive: adds something desirable to the actor




negative: removes something undesirable from the action



(operant conditioning)


punishment



positive: adds something undesirable to the actor


negative: removes something desirable from the actor

how to punish (5 things)

availability of alternatives,


behavioral and situational specificity,


timing and consistency,


conditioning secondary punishing stimuli,


avoiding mixed messages

classical conditioning

environmental cue (conditioned stimulus) becomes associated with the presence of a unconditioned stimulus and elicits a conditioned response

habituation (and desensitization)

repeated exposure to a stimulus reduces response




desensitization is not more reaction to a stimlus through repeated exposure to it

Skinners technique of operant conditioning

emphasizes environment over heredity,


automatic actions over free will

primary reinforcers act on primary drives

food, water, sex, personal comfort

secondary reinforcers act on secondary drives

money, praise, power

downfall of reinforcement

it can increase the frequency of any behavior, regardless of its real connection with the consequences that follow

punishment

an aversive consequence that follows an act in order to stop it and prevent its repetition

Goals of punishment

start some behaviors,


maintain some behaviors,


prevent some behaviors

shortcomings of behaviorism

it ignores motivation, though, and cognition.,


its mostly based on research on animals,


it ignores the social dimensions of learning,


it treats the organism as essentially passive

reactionary perspective


(trial and error personality development)

constantly update the self in accordance to the consequence of our actions

Bems self perception theory


(absolute personality consistency)

attitudes correspond and therefore are shaped by our previous actions


(i did this, so i must believe that...)

social learning theory

people are not passively interacting with environments,


there are dynamic relationships between the self and the social situations,


learn from others' actions,


avoid making their mistakes,


capitalize on learning from their rewards,


prioritize actions,


evaluate risk vs. reward,


forgo immediate pleasure gains for future reinforcement (delay of gratification

Dollard and Millers Social Learning Theory (slides explanation)

Habitat hierachy, develop 'habitats' for which behaviors are more or less likely to become activated in a situation (potentiation), learning rearranges habits, learning makes it less likely, but does not eliminate the possibility that a person will display previously learning behaviors in the future.,


drive-reduction theory, behavior is potentiation by an appetitive drive (primary or secondary) to satisfy a need, once a drive is satiated (zero need), people ususally recalibrate goals and therefore activate new needs, get bored and habituated, hedonic treatmill and coasting.,


Frustration-aggression hypothesis, frustration builds from blocked goals, promoting aggression, generally the more desirable the goal, the more frustrated one feels not being able to attain it.,


approach-avoidance conflict, tendencies to approach or avoid a goal that is both attractive and dreaded (e.g. a bungee jump) may change over time. both tendencies increase as the goal gets closer, but the avoidance gradient is steeper than the approach gradient.

Julian Rotters social learning theory

concerns decision making and the role of expectancies.


She uses the expected value theory, which assumes that behavioral decisions are determined not just by the presence or size of reinforcement, but also by beliefs about the likely results of behaviors.,


with this theory, even if a reinforcement is attractive, you are not likely to pursue it if your chances of success seem slim., (conversely, even something not particularly desirable might motivate behavior if the chances of getting it are good enough)



Julian Rotters expectancy definition

an expectancy for a behavior is a persons belief, or subjective probability about how likely it seems that the behavior will attain its goal. the expectancy is your belief about whether an action will pay off.


if you think a belief will bring success, you will try.. (if you think it wont work, you wont try it)

Difference between rotters theory and classic behaviorism

classic view focusses on actual rewards and punishments, while Rotters social learning theory focuses on beliefs about reward and punishment

Rotters 2 types of expectancies

specific and generalized


specific: the belief that a certain behavior, at a certain time and place, will lead to a specific outcome (contextualized)/


generalized: general beliefs about whether anything you do is likely to make a difference (decontextualized) aka locus of control

people with internal locus of control

those with high generalized expectancies and thus tend to think that what they do affects what happens to them

people with external locus of control

have low generalized expectancies and tend to think that what they do will not make much difference

Internal LOC



perceived agency of self on environment

External LOC

environment overpowers self


associated with depression and helplessness

Rotters concepts lead to

theories about and measurements of individual differences

Banduras theory

gives less emphasis to stable differences between people (generally ignores them).

Where did Bandura go beyond Rotter? (since Banduras theory builds on Rotters)

his emphasis on the social nature of learning and the ways people interact with the situations in their lives.

Rotters expectancies are Banduras

efficacy expectations

Banduras SLT

Reciprocal Determinism, environment shapes people, but people also shape their environments.,


Working self-concept, self in constantly under construction, shaped by knowledge of self in and across contexts, and actively integrating/updating with new information as one goes along living their everyday lives.


Triad of: Behavioral factors, environmental factors, and personal factors

Rotters notion of expectancy

that if you do something, you will attain your goal

Banduras efficacy (notion of expectancy)

is the perceived probability that you can do something in the first place.

Banduras self efficacy

beliefs (or disbeliefs) about ones ability to succeed at goals with an environment




belief about the self, about what the person is capable of doing.

self-concept

affects your efficacy expectations in various domains.

Walter Mischels Cognitive Affective personality system

focuses on intrapersonal variability in responses and behaviors

If... Then personality contingencies

takes into account learning, feeling, thinking, and self-regulation.,


more sensitive to the way people change their behavior across situations

Problems with trait based personality approaches (Big 5)

they are poor predictors of non aggregate situations.,


(two equaly neurotic people will display very different reactions and behaviors)

Two major limitations of the learning approaches to personality

it is not clear that the effects of behavioral therapies on phobias, addictions, and other problems are generalizable and long lasting.,


these theories still tend to underappreciate the degree to which the characteristic ways people think can cause them to respond differently to the same situation.

Biggest problem

pragmatically, is how to build a science around a diverse set of interactive factors.

Baddelys model of working memory

the central executive is like Freuds personality executive (called ego).,


fluid system is changing.,


memories are fixed (crystalized) unless we bring them back in which they are subject to change.,


crystalized memories are more about learning

Activation in working memory

stimuli in WM activate connections with related stimuli, based on experience

Reverse process:

emotion produces accessible cogntions

chronic accessibility

tendencies to see the world more positively or negatively.,

process of cognition producing emotion, how you feel depends on how you appraise situations, worry engages anxiety



people with positive and negative temperments

have different sets of chronically accessible ideas, leading to different views of the world and different behavior

rejection sensitivity

anxious attachment and rejection fulfillment

Reverse process

emotions produces accessible cognitions

top down self esteem

when we evaluate ourselves by how we feel

example of class of legos

we've changed the way we react to them, we have positive feelings towards the movies and lego land and then associate those feelings with lego company. that marketing changed the affective reaction

capacity as an individual difference variable

feelings prioritize goals (interupt cognitive processing) in the service of goal focus.,


thus, not only do feelings influence the kinds of associates found in working memory, they also influence the ways in which that information is attended

limitations in working memory processing

limited ability to attend to a lot of information, need to maintain important information, suppress unimportant information (distractors such as worries)

Working memory and action-deliberation

attentional focus changes as a function of mood quality

motivational intensity

intense states (excitement, anger, anxiety) induces local processing.,


(high approach or high avoidance goal states, zero in on goals like a racehorse with blinders).,


less intense states (calm, sadness) induces global processing.,


(low approach or low avoidance goal states)

When does the cognitive scope change?

narrows when immediate goals are salient (action orientation) and broadens following goal success or failure (deliberation orientation)

In the navon letter task example in class (about global-local processing)

people who are in an excited mood are able to notice the letters inside the letters.,


those who are calm or less intense are more likely to see the u

what does factor analysis research do?

focusses on one factor that has an emotionality variable.,


tries to figure out what factors go together.,


like if one factor is high on one tests it will also be high on another (i.e. depression and stress)

results from chris' study

mood had no effect on their working memory ability, but huge differences with personality. ,


moods had no influence over scores, however if you place peoples emotions (sad and calm) you will have different effects (negative emotion people do bad when they are anxious and do well when they are sad)

Dual processing accounts: thinking broadly involves 2 systems

rely heavily on system 1 (fast)


intuition, affect, cognitive associations, schemas/scripts/stereotypes, heuristics & biases




typically use system 2 (slow) when system 1 is insufficient


reasoning, logic, calculations



what do system 1 and 2 prioritize?

system 1 prioritizes actions, whereas system 2 prioritizes deliberations

differences in judgement in system 1 and 2

when we are reliant on system 1 processing, we assume how people act is because of their personality. if we use our system 2 we are more considerate and can consider what was going on in their life during that time, or why their behavior is modified, they are doing these things because of a certain situation.

cognitive experiential self-theory

seeks to explain unconscious processing the seemingly irrational, emotion-driven sectors of the mind.

Two self systems in CEST

rational system and the experiential system

rational system (cold process)

includes language, logic, and systematized, factual knowledge. it resembles Freuds conception of secondary process thinking...




want to go more with reason, they have emotions, however they dont use those in order to determine their cognitions




controlled, deliberate, logical, systematic, need for cognition

experiential system (hot process)

evolutionary older, tied closely to emotion, and assumed to be the way other animals think, resembles Freuds conception of primary process thinking




go more with your gut, use your emotions more




automatic, intuitive, affective (emotional), need for affect

what do individual differences arise from (CEST)

greater reliance on one of the two systems

ideographic goals

goals that are unique to the persons who pursue them.,


prioritize current concerns, be them big or small.,


they are hierarchical and flexible, priorities are reprioritized to fit immediate goals

personal strivings (ideographic goal)

long term goals that can organize broad areas of a persons life. (ex: areas of self-worth contingencies).,


striving to be smart (academic self worth) versus strivings to be cool (interpersonal self-worth).,


strivings potentially feel (or are) contradictory, causing troubles

nomothetic goals

goals that apply to everyone

McClellands Big Three... motivations that drive human behaivor

need for achievement, need for affiliation (or intamacy), need for power.,


similarities with self-determination theory

entity theory

where people believe that personal qualities such as intelligence and ability are unchangeable.,


level of achievement is fixed

incremental theory

believe that intelligence and ability can change with time and experience.,


level of achievment is flexible, dependent on opportunity and effort, mastery is a choice, their goals involve proving their competence as well as increasing it.

Affect circumplex

difference valences in emotion and arousal.,


emotion states go thru a categorization process and label them by what others have felt during that time

alexithymia

no emotional intelligence at all. (usually autistic)

final remarks for personality

personality isnt about traits, its about process. what we do and how its going to change. our actions change from one context to the next in most cases

self-concept

that attitudes we have are going to be meaningful. attitudes matter because they influence our behaviors as well.,


what we know and what we believe about ourselves

self perception theory

look back on our behaviors and who we were

integrative self-concepts

mixture of positive and negative beliefs across selves


compartmentalized self-concepts

seperate positive and negative beliefs based on evaluation of self-in-situation.,


high contingencies of self-worth

problems of upward social comparisons

it can make us feel like crap when we are around people who are better than us

looking glass self

evaluate the self based on how we imagine others see us.,


appraisal from others are important,


self presentation

spotlight effect

overestimate attention paid to us, self monitoring

independent self

self-worth based on autonomy, individualisitic idelogy, western culture, value the lone world

interdependent self

self worth based on relationship with group, collectivist ideology, value the wolf pack

development of self esteem norms

social norms are really important in developing them, traits valued by culture drives self-presentational concerns, self esteem is based on personal or social identity

self esteem and feelings, bottom-up

reasons for high SE lead to positive feelings about self.,


"i am successful and capable, which makes me feel good about self"


...most popular

self esteem and feelings, top-down

positive feelings make accessible the reasons for high SE accessible.,


"I feel good about myself right now, which leads me to believe i am capable and will be successful"

are explicit and implicit self esteem interchangeable?

absolutely not

When prediciting the future self...

they will be more successfull, higher self-esteem and positive mood, future self will be a better self

planning fallacy (in regards to future self)

"success wont be that tough", underestimate time and effort of future tasks, f"uture self has more motivation and self control".,


goes along with how in the future we think we are going to be much more like our ideal self in the future, and we do need this belief but we also need this level of responsibility into becoming that person

Construal level

See future events broadly (high construal), which becomes complicated by the details (low construal) as events become nearer.,


we see the future in more broad terms, you dont really think about the minot details, the things we thought we would enjoy we see there is more work involved than we first though.

what can unrealistic optimism be a prescription for?

poor outcomes when optimism overshadows behavioral promotion and prevention, high contrual goals must be met with low construal behaviors

how important is hope?

really important for emotions, problem is if we start to lose sight of the possibility that things are going to get better, depression becomes problematic, especially true for suicide.,


hope is an important emotion that goes along with these biases that your life is going to get better.

self-verification

says that people do not always loook blindly for self-flattering information, its the tendency to look for information that is consistent with ones self concept., (this is true of negative self beliefs as well as positives).,

what can inconsistencies between others and personal beliefs about the self cause?

dissonance, to some degree self-threatening

according to Bill Swann (self verification)

we look for information that is consistent with the verifying information that other people use. people may have beliefs about us that arent real (too positive, and dont actually represent you).


Swann would suggest that we are going to have negative reactions to those inconsistencies., people suffer when they dont add up to what they feel like people think of them or treat them. if someone starts to treat them in a way that shows them as positive (as someone who is suffering from depression), they will have a difficult time with. thats what self verification is telling us!

so what kind of expectations should we have with our future self?

positive, but realistic expectations., failure is possible, the self-control to overcome external and internal obstacles

advantage of negative thinking

defensive pessimism: self doubt motivates preparation, functional neuroticism

disadvantages of negative thinking

depressive realism: that depressed individuals make more realistic inferences than do non-depressed individuals.,


see the world more accurately, have more control.,


can also be a disadvantage because that power of control over your emotions can lead to negative emotions

false consensus

negative characteristics are shared by people. when we have negative characteristics we assume we all share those characteristics.,


unlike with happy characteristics, those are more personal.,


its like a defense mechanism

false consensus effect

people overestimate the commonality others with similar negative qualities and their unsuccessful behaviors

false uniqueness effect

people underestimate the commonality of others with similar positive qualities and their successful behaviors

self-handicapping

fear of failure leads to behaviors that serve to excuse goal failure

self-presentation concerns

generally, want others to think we are great, but also dont to disappoint them,.,


living up to the imagined expectations of others is challenging

What classifies a disorder as abnormal?

disorders that are statical deviations from average levels (e.g. traits): outliers




EXTREME (emotions, cognitions, behaviors)

Awareness and personality disorders

in personality disorders, people are often unaware of the problem (ego-syntonic), despite social side effects.,




People with extreme emotional issues typically realize and are overwhelmed by symptoms (ego-dystonic)

Clusters of personality disorders

Cluster A: Distorted thinking




Cluster B: implusive/erratic emotion and behavior




Cluster C: anxiety mechanims

Cluster A: Distorted thinking

schizotypal, schizoid; paranoid

Schizophrenia Lite

disjointed thoughs/speech (word salad).,


delusional/fantastical thinking (e.g. telpathy; superstitious; perceptual abnormalities (like belief of an extra limb)).,


paranoia.,


extreme emotionality (intense or flat affect).,


strange actions/appearance.,


social impediments (fail to form close relationships; social anxiety)

Schizoid

extreme social disinterest/social numbness.,


interactions with others provide no joy (not even via sexual contact).,


lack social emotion (e.g. empathy).,


live solitary lives (e.g. hermits)




Difference from avoidance, they dont have any response to social reactions, they dont get any satisfaction from relationships, they arent scared of rejections they are just indifferent about social interactions

Paranoid

High suspiciousness of others, see others as personal/relational threats, attend to cues they interpret to be confirmation of their suspicious beliefs.,


can come off as coal and calculating OR angry and stubborn

Cluster B: Implusive/erratic emotion & behavior

histrionic; narcissims, antisocial, borderline

Histrionic (Halle)

dramatic self-presentation (e.g. sexually seductive).,


desires attention, extreme extraversion, constant need for updated social approval (i.e. always needs more).,


exaggerated reactions to situations.,


extreme emotional contagion, adopt and adhere to attitudes to fit situational context, extreme capriciousness (complusive)

Narcissism

entitled, "vulnerable" narcissisnts: more dangerous because when folks arent following their beliefs they are likley to become aggressive.,


inflated sense of self, seek self-verifying information, do not take kindly to dissention (i.e. when other do not see them as all that awesome), demand special treatment, disparage others and their accomplishments/abilities.,


their world, others are just lucky enough to live in it with them

antisocial

lack moral compass, disloayl, maniupulative, deceitful, lack empathy, relationally maniuplative without emotional recoil, lack worry or concern, undeterred by potential risk (low or no avoidance motivation)




like the super villan of disorders. they can use other emotions and not feel remorse at all, extremely maniupulative, sometimes shocked with how much they can get away with, they lack the emotions that keep us prosocial

Borderline

poorly established identify, emotions behaviors, attitudes fluctuate extremely, disconnect from reality, lack emotional control, prone to self-destructive acts, chronic dissatisfaction, unstable relational attachements

Cluster C: Anxiety Mechanisms

dependent, avoidant, obsessive-complusive

Dependent

extreme submissiveness, need other to control their lives, fear personal agency, simultaneous resentful of those they let control them

avoidant

avoid situations that may provide rejection or feelings of failure (extreme social sensitivity), constrict social world so that no one can get close to them, manage to avoid social rejection, but still crave relational closeness.,




they want relationships but they are too scared

Personality disorders in context

they are not necessarily socially destructive or socially incompatible