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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
emphasis on consciousness of aware mind;
conscious thoughts and feelings are the cause of everything you do
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow; physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
state of developing one's potential to the fullest
Carl Rogers
positive regard and conditions of worth;
client-centered therapy
Positive Regard
we need people to see us as a good person
Conditions of worth
conditional positive regards of someone
ex "we'll be pissed if you don't get good grades"
Preference realization
getting what you want, you decide, actually life matches ideal life
Measures of well-being
affective measures;
cognitive measures
Affective measures
positive affect (happy)
negative affect (sad);
together create Hedonic balance;
tells us how often we feel good or bad
Cognitive measures
involve a judgement - one's judgment of one's life;
tell us if we feel good or bad
Trying to maximize the pleasure in one's life
Adaptation Theory
adaptation is inevitable, quick, complete and happens in all life events
Possible explanations of cross-sectional effects
Selection (once unhappy, always)
Lasting Effect (event happens, then unhappy),
Adaptation (unhappy during event, but then regain happiness)
McCrae and Costa
universality of traits - whether traits are constant across cultures or if they vary
Approaches to studying culture
Evoked culture, transmitted culture, and culture universals
Evoked Cultures
Phenomena that are triggered in different ways by different environmental conditions

EX: physical fight when someone insults you
Transmitted Culture
representations that exist originally in one person's mind that are transmitted to other minds through observation or interaction with the original person
Cultural Universals
Attempt to identify features of personality that appear to be universal ; "human nature" level of analyzing personality
All cultures may have similar adaptive challenges - Big 5
Church and Katigbak
Filipino students who spoke Tagalog and English - found Big 5 consistencies
Determinist Thesis
Given the state of the world at T1, plus the laws of nature, there is only one possible state of the world at T2; free will is an illusion; the past determines the present
Behaviorism's Optimistic Determinism
the present is determined by the past, but that means the future is determined by what we do now
John B. Watson
given specified conditions, can raise children to be whatever he chooses them to be based on the training he gives them
The idea that all knowledge comes from eperience
Any two things become mentally associated into one if they are repeatedly experienced close together in time
relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
Associate Learning
learning that two events occur together
reflexive response to a stimulus diminishes in strength with repeated exposures
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov - used bell-tone to condition a dog to drool after implementing a bell when the dog was feeding. Dog began to droll upon hearing the bell, associating the noise with eating; animal learns relationships between two stimuli
Operant Conditioning
Skinnerian conditioning; animal learns the relationships between responses and consequences
Thorndike's Law of Effect
tendency to perform a given response is strengthened or weakened by the effect that the response brings about (puzzle box, cats)
B. F. Skinner
Radical Behaviorism - idea that all we need to study is observable behavior; behavior happens from outside events, not thoughts, feelings, etc
an environmental consequence of a response that makes the response more likely to recur
positive or negative
Positive reinforcement
behavior leads to more of a positive outcome
good grades - scholarship - good grades
Negative Reinforcement
behavior leads to less of a negative outcome
studying - reduces test anxiety - study more
an environmental consequence of a response that makes the response less likely to recur
commit crime - jail - stop criminal acts
Dollard and Miller's Social Learning Theory
Habit hierarchy - you have different habits, some are more likely than others to be enacted; reinforcements change which are more likely
drives - primary and secondary
Expectancy value theory: behavioral decisions are determined by the size of reinforcements and beliefs about the likelihood of obtaining it
Expectancies vs behaviorism
actual rewards and punishments vs beliefs about rewards and punishments
Locus of control
External and internal
people with low generalized expectancies think that everything is out of their control; less independent, more depressed and stressed
People with high generalized expectancies think that things are in their control; higher achievers; greater life satisfaction
Bandura's social learning theory
efficacy expectations - it's about what you can do not the rewards you get
High self-efficacy
more likely to do behavior
engage in behavior long
prepare more for behavior
Observational learning
learning can take place by watching others
concepts that have been activated recently are quick to come to mind;
Chronic accessibility
concepts that are constantly primed;
Perceptual defense
chronically defend against awareness of specific content
ex: takes people less time to recognize neutral words than sexually charged words
Sensory registers
lasts a few seconds
iconic storage
echoic storage
Iconic storage
Echoic storage
Short term memory (working memory)
mental scratch-pad;
20-30 seconds;
holds 7 +- 2 items;
information we can keep in mind when we are doing typical "thinking"
Long-term memory
permanent and infinite (almost);
explicit memory;
implicit memory
Explicit Memory
consciously accessible
semantic memory: facts, definitions, lyrics
episodic memory: specific events
Implicit Memory
not consciously accessible;
procedural memory, behaviors
learning (classical and operant)
stage theory;
rehearsal sends things from STM to LTM
but you must put in hooks for things to stick to LTM
Motivational psychology
bridges gap between many areas of psychology
internal states that arouse and direct behavior toward specific objects or goals;
can answer why people do what they do
most early work in personality dealt with this (Maslow, Rogers, Freud)
current research concerns goals and strategies
can be specific or general (need a balance);
short- or long-term
without goals life is chaotic, can become depressed
Idiographic goals
goals that are unique to the person pursuing them;
"Personal Project" Little;
"Personal Strivings" Emmons
Nomothetic goals
Goals we all seek to achieve (life, liberty)
McClelland: Need for Achievement, Need for Affiliation, Need for Power
Defensive pessimism
Assume the worst will happen so you can be happy when it does not
rational decisions vs emotional decisions
Stages of emotional experience
Physical Responses
Facial expressions
Nonverbal expressions
judgement of stimulus as emotionally relevant
Physical responses
such as changes in pulse
Facial expressions
smiles or snarls
Nonverbal behaviors
jumping or making a fist
Basic emotions; identified six basic emotions
happy, sad, anger, fear, surprise, disgust
Facial expressions
recognizable, universal, present without learning, blind from birth make same facials
Emotion states vs emotion traits
states: transitory, depend more on situation than person
traits: pattern a person constantly experiences across a variety of life situations
4 personality processes
perception, thought, motives, emotion
Self-reference effect
enhancement of long-term memory that comes from thinking of how information relates to the self
William James
the "me" self and "i" self
"Me" self
an object that can be observed and described
our self-concept
"i" self
part of you that does observing and describing
part of you that actually thinks, feels
Individuals vs collectivists;
collectivists work harder after failure, individuals look for other strengths;
need for high self-regard is higher for individualist cultures
collectivists are less consistent in their behaviors; inconsistency has more consequences for individualists than collectivists
Explicit knowledge
declarative knowledge, conscious knowledge you have and articulate
implicit knowledge
includes procedural - comes from just doing things (riding a bike, driving a car)
semantic - comes from simple associations (classical conditioning)
Self esteem
general evaluation of your self-concept along with a good-bad or like-dislike dimension
with failure, low are more likely to perform poorly on subsequent tasks
diagnostic and statistical manual;
makes diagnoses more objective and to provide explicit diagnosis for insurance purposes
Personality disorders
unusually extreme, problematic, social, stable, ego syntonic (people who have the disorder don't perceive it as a problem)
Three groups of disorders
Dramatic Emotional Erratic
Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic
Odd or Eccentric
Anxious Fearful