Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Creation of Federalists and Democrat-Republicans

Created in the 1790s in order to reflect different agendas

Nature of Supreme Court Decisions

Sought to assert federal power over state laws and the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution

National v. local concerns

Diverging economic systems meant that regional political and economic loyalties often continued to overshadow national concerns

Southerners defended slavery

Southerners were prideful of their institution of slavery and believed that the federal government should defend slavery

Effects of Second Great Awakening

Liberal social ideas from abroad, and Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility fostered the rise of voluntary organizations to promote religious and secular reforms, including abolition and women’s rights

US Government restricts African American's citizenship

Despite the abolition of the slave trade, increased amount of free slaves, and emancipation plans, the US and many state governments continued to restrict the rights of African Americans

Resistance to democracy and inclusion

Proslavery arguments, rising xenophobia, antiblack sentiments in political and popular culture, and restrictive anti-Indian policies

New National Culture

Various Americans creating art, architecture, and literature that combined European forms with local and regional cultural sensibilities

African American Communities and Strategies

Created communities and strategies to protect their dignity and their family structures, even as some launched abolitionist and reform movements aimed at changing their status

Innovations that extended markets

Textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads, and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets

New Jobs for women and low-skilled workers

No longer relied on semisubsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing

Effects of Southern cotton growth

The growth of cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade

The American System

Linked North and Mid West more closely than either was linked to South

Effects of government's attempt to exploit natural resources

Promote free and forced migration, ideas about defining and managing labor systems, geographical boundaries and natural resources

Effects of canals and new western territories

Native-born white citizens relocated westward, relying on new community systems

Effects of migrants from Europe

Increase population in East and Midwest, strong bonds of interdependence between N.E and Old N.W

Southern distinction

Remained politically, culturally and ideologically distinct, relying on its exports to Europe for economic growth

Effects of Market Revolution

Widened gap between the rich and poor, shaped middle and working classes, caused separation between home and workplace, transformation in family roles and expectations

Reasons that regional interests trumped national interests

Trump national concerns as basis for political leaders' positions on economic issues including slavery, national bank, tariffs and internal improvements

Effects of Louisiana Purchase

Led Americans into numerous economic, diplomatic and military initiative in West Hemisphere and Asia

Methods of dominance over continent

Including military actions, judicial decisions and diplomatic efforts

Debates over expanding border

About whether to expand and how to define and use the new territories

Resistance to government control

Federal government attempts to assert authority over state that brought resistance from state governments in North and South at different times

Missouri Compromise

Truce over issue of slavery that gradually broke down as confrontations over slavery became bitter

Effects of slaveholders' desires to move west

Depleted land in Southeast, relocated agricultural enterprises, increased sectional tensions and sparking debate about goals, priorities, and strategies

War Hawks

Group of republican congressmen who demanded that the U.S declare war against Great Britain, in British Canada and expel the Spanish from Florida

Henry Clay

Leading American politician and political theorist

John Marshall

Fourth chief justice of the supreme court of the U.S, helped lay basis for U.S constitutional law

Judicial Review

Doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary. May invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority.

Marbury v. Madison

Helped define the boundary between the executive and judicial branches

McCulloch V. Maryland

Congress no power to bank, but does have ability to tax and spend

Gibbons v. Ogden

Was to regulate interstate commerce, encompassed power to regulate navigation.

Hartford Convention

Was a set of meetings to discuss their grievances concerning the War of 1812 and political problems arising from federal government's increasing power.

War of 1812

Military conflict, lasting for 2 and a half years fought by the U.S against Great Britain, tried to solve problems left from Revolutionary war.

Macon's Bill No.2

Was intended to motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars.


Refers to the act of taking men into a navy by force and with or without notice.

Chesapeake-Leopold Affair

Strident war calls with Great Britain from U.S., A naval engagement

Battle of New Orleans Nation

Series of engagements fought and was also the final major battle of 1812

Treaty of Ghent

Peace treaty that ended the war of 1812 between U.S and Britain

Lewis and Clark

First American expedition to cross the now western portion of the U.S, through the continental divide to Pacific Coast

Francis Scott Key

American Lawyer, author and amateur poet, wrote lyrics to National Anthem

Era of good feelings

Sense of national purpose and desire for unity among Americans


Restriction of interest to a narrow sphere, undue with local interest or petty distinctions at the expense of general well- being

Second Bank of U.S.

Bank handled all fiscal transactions for the U.S government

Panic of 1819

First major peacetime financial crisis in the U.S followed by general collapse of the American economy

Erie Canal

Effective way to ship bulk goods. First transportation system between East and West

Lowell System

Labor and production model employed in the U.S


The process in which a society or country transforms itself from and agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services

Missouri Compormise

Effort by congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri late in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery would be permitted.

Monroe Doctrine

U.S foreign policy regarding European countries in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S intervention.

Nativist Party

Political position of demanding a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.

The Frontier

English colonial settlements, ended with admission of the last mainland territories as states

Great Plains

Broad expanse of flat land, much of it covered in prairie

King Cotton

Slogan summarizing the strategy used during the American Civil War by the Confederacy to that secession was feasible.

John C. Calhoun

Leading American politician and political theorist

Battle of Tippecanoe

Conflict between the Confederacy of Native Indian warriors led by Tecumseh and Wiliam Henry Harrison

Eli Whitney

Invented the cotton gin

Nat Turner

African-American slave who led a slave rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton County, Virginia

Indian Removal Act

May 28, 1830; allowed U.S. government to remove Native Americans from lands in the Southern US

Trail of Tears

Cherokee nation forced to give up land and migrate to reservations in Oklahoma. The trail had devastating effects on the Cherokee

Nullification Crisis

Sectional crisis during Andrew Jackson's presidency created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification

The Liberator

Abolitionist newspaper created by William Lloyd Garrison


Increased spiritual interest

Harriet Tubman

African-American abolitionist best known for sneaking slaves into the North where slavery was illegal