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52 Cards in this Set

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Class Lobosea is found in the subphylum and phylum
Subphylum: Sarcodina
Phylum: Sarcomastigophora
There are two orders within the class Lombosea:
amoebida and schizopyrenida
General Information on Entamoeba histolytica:
It has nuclear karyosome that is central and fine peripheral chromatin. The cyst is 12 micrometers and has 1 to four nuclei. The genome size is very large.
histolytica is the only pathogenic form of..
Entameba coli is different from its brethren because it has
eight nuclei
Entamoeba gingivalis is found within the mouth and has no...
cyst stage
Entamoeba polecki is a polish type of entamoeba so its only found in
Iodamoeba butschlii wants to special so it is the only one of suborder tubulina that is found in
pigs and primates
Which two entamoeba from the suborder tubulina are nearly identical?
histolytica and dispar, but if you count more than four its not histolytica
Amebiasis will only start exocystation once it has picked up ....
signals with in its host.
Amebiasis will localize in the -----, but if the infection gets big enough then it can
pass into the blood, liver and then lungs.
Parasites reside mostly in the ------ ------- but can go to the ------- as well
Parasites reside mostly in the large intestines but can go to the small as well
The presence of parasite limit what can be absorbed into the intestinal lining so it....and becomes
The presence of parasite limit what can be absorbed into the intestinal lining so it passes through and becomes diarrhea or dysentery
Foci of infection risk groups of ameobi are:
day care centers, institutionalized populations, male homosexuals, traveler
More pathogenic amoeba cases near the
tropics, disappear as you go north
What is the carrier state of amoebiasis?
Luminal amoebiasis
Mode of transmission for amoebiasis is:
water (don't drink the water in Mexico), fecal-oral route so its often food borne
Symptoms of Intestinal Disease (aslo called ?)
Amebic colitis: gastro-intestinal pain, diarrhea, dysentery (blood in stool), weight loss
The body's response to amebic colitis:
recruitment of inflammatory cells to lession, thickening of mucosa (hyperplasia)
What amebic colitis does to the tissue?
Invasion of colonic mucosa/lysis of mucosal epithelium and lysis of inflammatory cells and further tissue lysis - formation of 'flask shaped lesions'
Amebic Liver abscess are induced by what and what population has a lot of them in what country
Amebic Liver (can occur in asymptomatic individuals) trophozoite- induced hepatic cell destruction, 21 of 100,000 in Hue Veitnam
Pulmonary Amebiasis are secondary to what?
secondary to liver abscess
In order for the amebiasis to invade the tissue what must be activated?
parasite must be motile for the intestine to be invaded (activated by Lectin)
What fuels neutrophil-mediated intestinal destruction with amebiasis?
The tissue inflammatory response during amoebiasis is initiated and fueled by a combination of human and amoebic factors and ultimately leads to neutrophil-mediated intestinal destruction
How many people infected with Amebiasis are asymptomatic?
What do amoebapores do to neutrophils and epithelial cells?
Cytolytic and apoptotic effects on neutrophils and epithelial cells- mediated by ionophore-like proteins called amoebapores
Proteolytic mediators are
Amebic cysteine proteinases
Diagnostic tools are:
multiple stool samples, but you have to see the cyst in the stool however if you have diarrhea you'll rarely gets cyst forms
Amebiasis will form anti-amebic antibodies (immuno-assays) but what amoeba will not?
E. dispar
Antigen can be detected (diagnostically) in two places which two?
feces and in serum when its pathogenic
Prevention/Treatment: 3 steps: two preventative and one drug
1. Eradication of fecal contamination of food and water (can kill by boiling, but can be resistant to low doses of chlorine)
2. Avoid practices that allow fecal-oral contact (Improved sanitation in institutions and modification of sexual practices)
3. Drugs: metronidazole
Fee living amoebe, that transforms from amoeboid and flagellated forms
Naegleria fowleri
Naegleria fowleri are
thermophilic and have no cyst stage
Acanthomoeba have what?
trophozoites have pointed pseudoodia (acanthodopia) who have angular cysts
What ameoba was implicated in the spread of leginella that legionares disease?
Hartmanella spp.
Naegleria fowleri are found
world wide in polluted thermal lakes and pollutes, there is a high prevlance of naegleria antibodies in young adults in southern USA esp FL.
Naegleria fowleri causes
primary amebic meningoencephilits as it gets in the nose when swiming
Amebic meningoencephalitis associated with naegleria have trophozoites found in .. and a high what count?
Naegleria have trophozites found in the CSF and a high neurophil count, but cysts are not found in humans.
Naegleria fowleria incubation period is how many days long?
5-7 day
Naegleria fowleri produce suck like appendaes or ... that do what?
Naegleria fowleri produce amebostomes that 'nibble' away at the tissue cutlure cells
Acathamoeba are found where in their diverse geographical locations?
soil and water
Acanthomeoba's trophozoites have what distinguishing feature?
Acathomeoba's trophozoites have pointed pseudopodia and their cysts are also angular
What are acanthamoeba keratisis found in and associated with?
Acathamoeba keratitis are found in healthy individuals but are associated with contamination of contact lens fluid.
Acathamoeba can cause what in immunocomprimised individuals?
Grandulomatous disease from granulomatous amoebic encephalitis
Grandulomatous amebic encephalitis leads to
skin land brain lesions
Acanthamoeba are diagnosed with a
microscope observation of the CSF or a biospy
Ciliates are part of what phylum?
The distinctive feartures of ciliates are:
cilia, peristome, cytostome, macronuclues and micronucleus. They have contractile vacuoles and food vacuoles
Where do ciliates like to colonize?
the large intestine
Where are ciliates normally found and who do they infect?
Found primarily in tropics and usually infect the malnourished
Why are most ciliate hosts asymptotic?
Most people who host ciliates are asymptotic because the ciliates rarely spread and are content to just live off food in the GI tract, just when their is no food in the GI tract they get more aggressive and dangerous
When ciliates become symptomatic those symptoms are?
causes balantidial dysentery- intermittent watery diarrhea with stools containing mucus and blood