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75 Cards in this Set

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cancer-causing agents


cause mutations/changes in the genetic material


cause tearing and intense eye irritation


can cause visible destruction of skin and clothing


causes sickness or death when ingested or absorbed

melting point

the temperature at which a solid transforms into a liquid

melting point range

the interval between the temperature at which a solid sample just beings to turn to liquid and the temperature at which the entire sample becomes liquid

phase transitition

when a material changes from one physical state of matter to another physical state

Electromagnetic Radiation from lowest to highest



Ultra Violet

Visible Light (ROYGBIV)



Radio Waves

Purpose of IR spectroscopy

to identify the functional groups present in molecules

Purpose of Recrystallization

purify solid organic materials

4 conditions of recrystallization

1) Has a low solubility at low temps

2) Has a high solubility at high temps

3) Does not react with the compound

4) Has a relatively low BP for easy evaporation <120


the distribution of material between two or more phases

Polarity of bonds from least to most

covalent < polar covalent < ionic

Polarity of intermolecular forces from least to most

London dispersion forces < dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding < ionic

Purpose of Column Chromatography

To purify solids


a technique in which compounds in a mixture are separated based on differing affinities between a mobile phase and a stationary phase


the removal or exit of a compound from the stationary phase

What does Rf indicate

The purity of a substance


a material which is not superimposable on its mirror image

chirality center (sterocenter)

a tetrahedral atom having four different groups attached

Cahn-Ingold Prelog system

a system of prioritization of groups around a carbon center, placement of the lowest priority in the back, then sequencing of the remaining group


a pair of non-superimposable mirror images


stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another


a compound with 2 or more chirality centers that is achiral due to presence of an internal plane or point of reflective symmetry


superimposable on its mirror image


2 or more molecules with the same empirical formula, and the same atomic connectivity but different spatial orientations

constitutional isomers

2 or more molecules with the same empirical formula but different atomic connectivity

(the two compounds will have different names)

Plane polarized light

electromagnetic radiation in which the orientation of the electric fields are perfectly aligned

Optically active


A material which will rotate plane polarized light

specific rotation

a fixed physical property describing the rotation of plane polarized light by a chiral compound

observed rotation

the experimentally obtained rotation of a compound

racemic mixtures

equal parts of two enantiomers


easily converted into a gas;

evaporating rapidly

retention time

time between the injection of a sample and the middle of when the sample reaches the detector

(measured between the start mark and the top of a peak)

refractive index

the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to the velocity of light in a sample


instrument used to measure the refractive index of a compound

theoretical plate

one cycle of evaporation and condensation in a ditillation


the process whereby liquid continuously boil in a lower portion of a distillation apparatus, the vapors rise then condense and drop back down


a process whereby the vapor above a heated liquid is collected, condensed and separated away from the bulk liquid

boiling point

the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure on that liquid


a mixture of liquids that distills at a constant temperature without changing composition

(eg. 95.5% ethanol, 4.5% water)

dew point curve

the top line of a distillation graph that determines the composition of the vapor over the liquid

boiling point curve

the bottom line of a distillation graph that determines the boiling point of a solution depending on its composition


the process of pouring off a liquid and leaving a solid or sediment behind


one liquid held in a suspension within another liquid

The purpose of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in the Caffeine Lab

Na2CO3 is a base that deprotonates the phenolic OH of tannins, rendering the compounds anionic and hence highly soluble in water but with a low solubility in the methylene chloride

Methylene chloride (CH2Cl2)


a halogenated organic solvent that is used in the liquid-liquid extraction portion of the experiment

The purpose of sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) in the caffeine experiment

a drying agent which binds with water and removes it from a liquid


Substitution Nucleophilic First Oder


an atom or assemblage of atoms which will donate electrons to form a newcovalent bond


an atom which will accept electrons and form a new covalent bond

Qualitative Analysis

a test or series of test which gives indications about a materials' identity or constituents

The effect on the melting point of adding an insoluble impurity such as sand to a compound

No change

The effect on the melting point of adding an impurity to a compound

Lower and broader

The purpose of adding sodium chloride (NaCl) to the centrifuge tube while extracting the caffeine

to help break down the emulsions between aqueous and CH2Cl2 layer

What is the meaning of flammable?

Which has a flash point below 100 degrees Fahrenheit

When do you stop heating while doing fractional distillation

When about 1/10 of the liquid remains inside the round bottom flask

Organic solvents are much _______ than aqueous solvents

less polar

What would have happened if you would have added sodium hydroxide in place of sodium bicarbonate at the first step of extraction

the sodium hydroxide (NaOH is a strong base) would have reacted with all of the MTBE, therefore you would not be able to separate the substances.

The effect of directly placing the hot reaction tube after dissolving the compound into an ice-water bath

Purity decreases, percent recovery increases

What would have happened if we added MTBE in place of heptane at the first step

No separation would have occured

Which compound from the TLC/Column Experiment had the least Rf value and why?

Acetylferrocene because it was more polar

The order of the compound that elutes first depending on the Rf value

The compound with the higher Rf value will elute first

What is the mobile phase in Gas chromatography


The lower the boiling point the ____ the retention period


The higher the boiling point the _____ the retention time


Raising the temperature of the column will do what to the retention time of the compounds?

Decrease the retention time

In the separation of acidic substances experiment, what was expected to be present in the organic layer after extractions with NaHCO3


Why was HCl used instead of NaCl for the transformation of 2-methyl-2-butanol into 2-chloro-2-methylbutane

The H+ is needed to convert OH- into a much better leaving group

What determines the purity of the recovered matter of a TLC experiment

Number of spots

During the caffeine lab, if a large excess of drying agent (Na2SO4) is used to dry the organic liquid, what would happen to the percent recovery and purity

Percent recovery decreases

Purity remains unchanged

During the caffeine lab, what would have contributed to an artificial increase in the percent recovery of caffeine

Water condenses on the watch glass during the final isolation step

During the caffeine lab, what would have contributed to an artificial decrease in the percent recovery of caffeine

1) The strings and the bag are weighed along with the tea

2) Caffeine maintains a partial solubility in water and the liquid-liquid extraction is not optimal

Formula for calculating specific rotation

(observed rotation)/ (concentration g/ml) * length in dm

1 dm= 10 cm